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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 159–164 | Cite as

Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists

  • Michael J. Kahana
  • Marc W. Howard
Brief Reports

Abstract

Repeating list items leads to better recall when the repetitions are separated by several unique items than when they are presented successively; thespacing effect refers to improved recall for spaced versus successive repetition (lag > 0 vs. lag = 0); thelag effect refers to improved recall for long lags versus short lags. Previous demonstrations of the lag effect have utilized lists containing a mixture of items with varying degrees of spacing. Because differential rehearsal of items in mixed lists may exaggerate any effects of spacing, it is important to demonstrate these effects in pure lists. As in Toppino and Schneider (1999), we found an overall advantage for recall of spaced lists. We further report the first demonstration of a lag effect in pure lists, with significantly better recall for lists with widely spaced repetitions than for those with moderately spaced repetitions.

Keywords

Free Recall Serial Position Spacing Effect Mixed List Serial Position Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Kahana
    • 1
  • Marc W. Howard
    • 2
  1. 1.Computational Memory Lab, Department of PsychologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaSt. Philadelphia
  2. 2.Syracuse UniversitySyracuse

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