Advertisement

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 482–488 | Cite as

Self-control by pigeons in the prisoner's dilemma

  • Forest Baker
  • Howard RachlinEmail author
Brief Reports

Abstract

Pigeons played a repeated prisoner's dilemma game against a computer that reflected their choices: If a pigeon cooperated on trial n, the computer cooperated on trial n + 1; if the pigeon defected on trial n, the computer defected on trial n + 1. Cooperation thus maximized reinforcement in the long term, but defection was worth more on the current trial. Under these circumstances, pigeons normally defect. However, when a signal correlated with the pigeon's previous choice immediately followed each current trial choice, some pigeons learned to cooperate. Furthermore, cooperation was higher when trials were close together in time than when they were separated by long intertrial intervals.

Keywords

Reinforcement Rate Large Reward Reward Magnitude Front Panel Small Reward 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Axelrod, R. (1984).The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, F., &Rachlin, H. (2001). Probability of reciprocation in repeated prisoner's dilemma games.Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,14, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clements, K. C., &Stephens, D. W. (1995). Testing models of non-kin cooperation: Mutualism and the prisoner's dilemma.Animal Behaviour,50, 527–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Flood, M., Lendenmann, K., &Rapoport, A. (1983). 2 3 2 games played by rats: Different delays of reinforcement as payoffs.Behavioral Science,28, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gardner, R. M., Corbin, T. L., Beltramo, J. S., &Nickell, G. S. (1984). The prisoner's dilemma game and cooperation in the rat.Psychological Reports,55, 687–696.Google Scholar
  6. Green, L., Price, P. C., &Hamburger, M. E. (1995). Prisoner's dilemma and the pigeon: Control by immediate consequences.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,64, 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heyman, G. M., &Tanz, L. (1995). How to teach a pigeon to maximize overall reinforcement rate.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,64, 277–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kudadjie-Gyamfi, E., &Rachlin, H. (1996). Temporal patterning in choice among delayed outcomes.Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes,65, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mazur, J. E. (1987). An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In M. L. Commons, J. G. Mazur, J. A. Nevin, & H. Rachlin (Eds.),Quantitative analyses of behavior: Vol. 5. Reinforcer value: The effect of delay and intervening events on reinforcement value (pp. 55–73). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Rachlin, H. (1995). The value of temporal patterns in behavior.Current Directions in Psychological Science,4, 188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rachlin, H. (2000).The science of self-control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Rachlin, H., &Green, L. (1972). Commitment, choice, and self-control.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,17, 15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rachlin, H., &Siegel, E. (1994). Temporal patterning in probabilistic choice.Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes,59, 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rapoport, A., &Chammah, A. (1965).Prisoner's dilemma. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Reboreda, J. C., &Kacelnik, A. (1993). The role of autoshaping in cooperative two-player games between starlings.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,60, 67–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Siegel, E., &Rachlin, H. (1995). Soft commitment: Self-control achieved by response persistence.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,64, 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Silverstein, A., Cross, D., Brown, J., &Rachlin, H. (1998). Prior experience and patterning in a prisoner's dilemma game.Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,11, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New YorkStony Brook

Personalised recommendations