Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts

Abstract

In the DRM (Deese/Roediger and McDermott) false memory paradigm, subjects studied lists of words associated with nonpresented critical words. They were tested in one of four instructional conditions. In a standard condition, subjects were not warned about the DRM Effect. In three other conditions, they were told to avoid false recognition of critical words. One group was warned before study of the lists (affecting encoding and retrieval processes), and two groups were warned after study (affecting only retrieval processes). Replicating prior work, the warning before study considerably reduced false recognition. The warning after study also reduced false recognition, but only when critical items had never been studied; when critical items were studied in half the lists so that subjects had to monitor memory for their presence or absence, the warning after study had little effect on false recognition. Because warned subjects were trying to avoid false recognition, the high levels of false recognition in the latter condition cannot be due to strategically guessing that critical test items were studied. False memories in the DRM paradigm are not caused by such liberal criterion shifts.

References

  1. Anastasi, J. S., Rhodes, M. G., &Burns, M. C. (2000). Distinguishing between memory illusions and actual memories using phenomenological measurements and explicit warnings.American Journal of Psychology,113, 1–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Benjamin, A. (2001). On the dual effects of repetition on false recognition.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,27, 941–947. ot]Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (in press). Fuzzy-trace theory: Dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience.Advances in Child Development & Behavior.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Donaldson, W. (1992). Measuring recognition memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,121, 275–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gallo, D. A., McDermott, K. B., Percer, J. M., &Roediger, H. L., III (2001). Modality effects in false recall and false recognition.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,27, 339–353.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gallo, D. A., Roberts, M. J., &Seamon, J. G. (1997). Remembering words not presented in lists: Can we avoid creating false memories?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 271–276.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gardiner, J. M., &Conway, M. A. (1999). Levels of awareness and varieties of experience In B. H. Challis & B. M. Velichkovsky (Eds.),Stratification in cognition and consciousness (pp. 237–254). Amsterdam: John Benjamin.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hicks, J. L., &Marsh, R. L. (1999). Attempts to reduce the incidence of false recall with source monitoring.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 1195–1209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Jacoby, L. L, Marsh, E. J., & Dolan, P. O. (in press). Forms of bias: Age-related differences in memory In M. Naveh-Benjamin, M.Moscovitch, & H. L. Roediger III (Eds.),Perspectives on human memory and cognitive aging: Essays in honour of Fergus Craik. Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.

  10. McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 212–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. McDermott, K. B. (1997). Priming on perceptual implicit memory tests can be achieved through presentation of associates.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 582–586.

    Google Scholar 

  12. McDermott, K. B., &Roediger, H. L., III. (1998). Attempting to avoid illusory memories: Robust false recognition of associates persists under conditions of explicit warnings and immediate testing.Journal of Memory & Language,39, 508 -520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. McDermott, K. B., &Watson, J. M. (2001). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 160–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Miller, M. B., &Wolford, G. L. (1999). Theoretical commentary: The role of criterion shift in false memory.Psychological Review,106, 398–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Neuschatz, J. S., Payne, D. G., Lampinen, J. M., &Toglia, M. P. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of warnings and phenomenological characteristics of false memories.Memory,9, 53–71.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Payne, D. G., Elie, C. J., Blackwell, J. M., &Neuschatz, J. S. (1996). Memory illusions: Recalling, recognizing, and recollecting events that never occurred.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 261–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Reyna, V. F., &Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy trace theory: An interim synthesis.Learning & Individual Differences,7, 1–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Roediger, H. L., III,Balota, D. A., &Watson, J. M. (2001). Spreading activation and the arousal of false memories In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. M. Suprenant (Eds.),The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 95–115). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1999). False alarms about false memories.Psychological Review,106, 406–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Roediger, H. L., III,McDermott, K. B., &Robinson, K. J. (1998). The role of associative processes in creating false memories In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi (Eds.),Theories of memory II (pp. 187–245). Hove, U.K.: Psychological Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Roediger, H. L., III,Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., &Gallo, D. A. (2001). Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis.Psychological Bulletin & Review,8, 385–407.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Schacter, D. L., Israel, L., &Racine, C. (1999). Suppressing false recognition in younger and older adults: The distinctiveness heuristic.Journal of Memory & Language,40, 1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Snodgrass, J. G., &Corwin, J. (1988). Pragmatics of measuring recognition memory: Applications to dementia and amnesia.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,117, 34–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Stadler, M. A., Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1999). Norms for word lists that create false memories.Memory & Cognition,27, 494–500.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness.Canadian Psychologist,26, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Underwood, B. J. (1965). False recognition produced by implicit verbal responses.Journal of Experimental Psychology,70, 122–129.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Wickens, T. D., &Hirshman, E. (2000). False memories and statistical decision theory: Comment on Miller and Wolford (1999) and Roediger and McDermott (1999).Psychological Review,107, 377–383.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Wixted, J. T., &Stretch, V. (2000). The case against a criterion-shift account of false memory.Psychological Review,107, 368–376.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David A. Gallo.

Additional information

This research was supported by NIMH Grant 1RO3 MH59034-01 to K.B.M. and by a contract from the Office of Technical Services of the U.S. Government awarded to H.L.R. and K.B.M.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gallo, D.A., Roediger, H.L. & McDermott, K.B. Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8, 579–586 (2001). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196194

Download citation

Keywords

  • False Alarm
  • False Memory
  • List Item
  • Study List
  • False Recognition