Memory & Cognition

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 474–488 | Cite as

Relations between emotion, memory, and attention: Evidence from taboo Stroop, lexical decision, and immediate memory tasks

  • Donald G. MackayEmail author
  • Meredith Shafto
  • Jennifer K. Taylor
  • Diane E. Marian
  • Lise Abrams
  • Jennifer R. Dyer


This article reports five experiments demonstrating theoretically coherent effects of emotion on memory and attention. Experiments 1–3 demonstrated three taboo Stroop effects that occur when people name the color of taboo words. One effect is longer color-naming times for taboo than for neutral words, an effect that diminishes with word repetition. The second effect is superior recall of taboo words in surprise memory tests following color naming. The third effect is better recognition memory for colors consistently associated with taboo words rather than with neutral words. None of these effects was due to retrieval factors, attentional disengagement processes, response inhibition, or strategic attention shifts. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that taboo words impair immediate recall of the preceding and succeeding words in rapidly presented lists but do not impair lexical decision times. We argue that taboo words trigger specific emotional reactions that facilitate the binding of taboo word meaning to salient contextual aspects, such as occurrence in a task and font color in taboo Stroop tasks.


Lexical Decision Lexical Decision Task Neutral Word Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Stroop Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald G. Mackay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meredith Shafto
    • 1
  • Jennifer K. Taylor
    • 1
  • Diane E. Marian
    • 1
  • Lise Abrams
    • 1
  • Jennifer R. Dyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology Dept.UCLALos Angeles

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