Skip to main content

Retrieval-induced forgetting and part-list cuing in associatively structured lists

Abstract

Using DRM lists (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in two experiments, we compared the effects of retrieval practice on a subset of the items and of the presentation of those items as retrieval cues at test on recall of the lists’critical items. In Experiment 1, the critical items were part of the studied lists, thus addressing these items’ veridical recall; in Experiment 2, they were not studied, thus addressing these items’ false recall. Three major results emerged. First, retrieval practice and part-list cuing reduced both veridical and false recall. Second, the two manipulations induced an integration effect in veridical recall, with substantial forgetting in lists with low false recall levels and no forgetting in lists with high false recall levels. Third, retrieval practice and part-list cuing created the same effects on recall, qualitatively and quantitatively. These results suggest that the detrimental effects of retrieval practice and part-list cuing were mediated by similar mechanisms. They are consistent with the view that not only retrieval-induced forgetting, but also part-list cuing is caused by inhibitory processes.

References

  • Anderson, M. C., &Bell, T. (2001). Forgetting our facts: The role of inhibitory processes in the loss of propositional knowledge.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,130, 544–570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. C., Bjork, E. L., &Bjork, R. A. (2000). Retrievalinduced forgetting: Evidence for a recall-specific mechanism.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,7, 522–530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., &Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,20, 1063–1087.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. C., Green, C., &McCulloch, K. C. (2000). Similarity and inhibition in long-term memory: Evidence for a two-factor theory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,26, 1141–1159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. C., &McCulloch, K. C. (1999). Integration as a general boundary condition on retrieval-induced forgetting.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 608–629.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. C., &Spellman, B. A. (1995). On the status of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition: Memory retrieval as a model case.Psychological Review,102, 68–100.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Basden, B. H., Basden, D. R., &Stephens, J. P. (2002). Part-set cuing of order information in recall tests.Journal of Memory & Language,47, 517–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basden, D. R. (1973). Cued and uncued recall of unrelated words following interpolated learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology,98, 429–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basden, D. R., &Basden, B. H. (1995). Some tests of the strategy disruption hypothesis of part-list cuing inhibition.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 1656–1669.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basden, D. R., Basden, B. H., &Galloway, B. C. (1977). Inhibition with part-list cuing.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,3, 100–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bäuml, K.-H. (1997). The list-strength effect: Strength-dependent competition or suppression?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 260–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bäuml, K.-H. (1998). Strong items get suppressed, weak items do not: The role of item strength in output interference.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,5, 459–463.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bäuml, K.-H. (2002). Semantic generation can cause episodic forgetting.Psychological Science,13, 357–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bäuml, K.-H., & Aslan, A. (in press). Part-list cuing as instructed retrieval inhibition. Memory & Cognition.

  • Bäuml, K.-H., &Hartinger, A. (2002). On the role of item similarity in retrieval-induced forgetting.Memory,10, 215–224.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bäuml, K.-H., Kissler, J., &Rak, A. (2002). Part-list cuing in amnesic patients: Evidence for a retrieval deficit.Memory & Cognition,30, 862–870.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, K. M., Williams, C. C., Maki, R. H., &Zacks, R. T. (2001). A limit on retrieval-induced forgetting.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,27, 1314–1319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ciranni, M.A., &Shimamura, A. P. (1999). Retrieval-induced forgetting in episodic memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 1403–1414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Collins, A.M., &Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic memory.Psychological Review,82, 407–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Foos, P. W., &Clark, M. C. (2000). Old age, inhibition, and the part-set cuing effect.Educational Gerontology,26, 155–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geiselman, R.E., Fisher, R. P., MacKinnon, D. P., &Holland, H. L. (1985). Eyewitness memory enhancement in the police interview: Cognitive retrieval mnemonics versus hypnosis.Journal of Applied Psychology,70, 401–412.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hasher, L., &Zacks, R. T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and a new view. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 22, pp. 193–225). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hicks, J. L., & Starns, J. J. (in press). Retrieval-induced forgetting occurs in tests of item recognition.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

  • Kimball, D. R., &Bjork, R. A. (2002). Influences of intentional and unintentional forgetting on false memories.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,131, 116–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levy, B. J., &Anderson, M. A. (2002). Inhibitory processes and the control of memory retrieval.Trends in Cognitive Sciences,6, 299–305.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • MacLeod, C. M., Dodd, M. D., Sheard, E. D., Wilson, D. E., &Bibi, U. (2003). In opposition to inhibition. In B. H. Ross (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 43, pp. 163–214). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macrae, C. N., &MacLeod, M.D. (1999). On recollections lost: When practice makes imperfect.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,7, 463–473.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 212–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDermott, K. B. (1997). Priming on perceptual implicit memory tests can be achieved through presentation of associates.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 582–586.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDermott, K. B., &Watson, J. M. (2001). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 160–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McEvoy, C. L., Nelson, D. L., &Komatsu, T. (1999). What is the connection between true and false memories? The differential role of interitem associations in recall and recognition.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 1177–1194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, M. B., &Wolford, G. L. (1999). Theoretical commentary: The role of criterion shift in false memory.Psychological Review,106, 398–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nickerson, R. S. (1984). Retrieval inhibition from part-set cuing: A persisting enigma in memory research.Memory & Cognition,12, 531–552.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raaijmakers, J. G. W., &Shiffrin, R. M. (1981). Search of associative memory.Psychological Review,88, 93–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Radvansky, G. A. (1999). Memory retrieval and suppression: The inhibition of situation models.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,128, 563–579.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Read, J. D. (1996). From a passing thought to a false memory in 2 minutes: Confusing real and illusory events.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 105–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reysen, M. B., &Nairne, J. S. (2002). Part-set cuing of false memories.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,9, 389–393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III (1973). Inhibition in recall from cueing with recall targets.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,12, 644–657.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III,McDermott, K. B., &Robinson, K. J. (1998). The role of associative processes in creating false memories. In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi (Eds.),Theories of memory II (pp. 187–245). Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III, &Schmidt, S. R. (1980). Output interference in the recall of categorized and paired associate lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,6, 91–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III,Stellon, C. C., &Tulving, E. (1977). Inhibition from part-list cues and rate of recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,3, 174–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, H. L., III,Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., &Gallo, D. A. (2001). Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,8, 385–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rundus, D. (1973). Negative effects of using list items as recall cues.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,12, 43–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Slamecka, N. J. (1968). An examination of trace storage in free recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,76, 504–513.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sloman, S. A., Bower, G. H., &Rohrer, D. (1991). Congruency effects in part-list cuing.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,17, 974–982.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, A. D. (1971). Output interference and organized recall from long-term memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,10, 400–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, E. E., Adams, N., &Schorr, D. (1978). Fact retrieval and the paradox of interference.Cognitive Psychology,10, 438–464.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, R. E., &Hunt, R. R. (2000). The influence of distinctive processing on retrieval-induced forgetting.Memory & Cognition,28, 503–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stadler, M. A., Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1999). Norms for word lists that create false memories.Memory & Cognition,27, 494–500.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Starns, J. J., & Hicks, J. L. (in press). Episodic generation can cause semantic forgetting: Retrieval-induced forgetting of false memories.Memory & Cognition.

  • Todres, A. K., &Watkins, M. J. (1981). A part-set cuing effect in recognition memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,2, 91–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tulving, E. (1974). Cue-dependent forgetting.American Scientist,62, 74–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tulving, E., &Pearlstone, Z. (1966). Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,5, 381–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watkins, M. J. (1975). Inhibition in recall with extralist “cues.”Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,14, 294–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karl -Heinz Bäuml.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bäuml, K.H., Kuhbandner, C. Retrieval-induced forgetting and part-list cuing in associatively structured lists. Memory & Cognition 31, 1188–1197 (2003). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195802

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195802

Keywords

  • False Memory
  • Critical Item
  • Retrieval Practice
  • False Recall
  • Recall Condition