Expectation of a final cumulative test enhances long-term retention
- 996 Downloads
In the present study, subjects studied lists of words across four experimental conditions: whether (or not) subjects received initial testing for these lists and whether (or not) they were made aware of an upcoming final free-recall test. Initial testing enhanced final-test performance; however, subjects benefited more from initial testing when they also knew they would need to remember the information for a later test. The data suggest that holding an expectation of the final test encouraged the continued processing of study materials following an initial test, affecting the accessibility of these materials at the time of final recall. The results clearly illustrate how an expectation of a cumulative test might influence long-term retention, which may have important implications for educational practice.
KeywordsFree Recall Verbal Learn Verbal Behavior Initial Test Proactive Interference
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Gates, A. I. (1917). Recitation as a factor in memorizing.Archives of Psychology,6, No. 40.Google Scholar
- Horton, K. D., &Petruk, R. (1980). Set differentiation and depth of processing in the directed forgetting paradigm.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,6, 599–610.Google Scholar
- MacLeod, C. M., Dodd, M. D., Sheard, E. D., Wilson, D. E., &Bibi, U. (2003). In opposition to inhibition. In B. H. Ross (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 43, pp. 163–214). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Masson, M. E. J., &McDaniel, M. A. (1981). The role of organizational processes in long-term retention.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,7, 100–110.Google Scholar
- McDaniel, M. A., &Masson, M. E. J. (1985). Altering memory representations through retrieval.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 371–385.Google Scholar
- Müller, G. E. (1911). Zur Analyse der Gedachtnistatigkeit und des Vorstellungsverlaufes: Teil I. [On the analysis of memory activity and the conception process: Part I].Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Suppl. 5.Google Scholar