Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 1273–1284 | Cite as

Effects of repetition on memory for pragmatic inferences

  • Kathleen B. McDermott
  • Jason C. K. Chan
Article
  • 701 Downloads

Abstract

Social interaction requires active inferential processing on the part of the listener. Such inferences can affect memory. For example, after hearingthe karate champion hit the cinder block, one might erroneously recollect having heard the verbbroke (Brewer, 1977)—a reasonable inference, but one not logically necessitated. The mechanisms behind this type of erroneous recollection have not been much explored. Experiments in the present article assessed the influence of repetition, response deadline, and age (cf. Jacoby, 1999), in an effort to demonstrate the dual contributions of familiarity and recollection underlying this phenomenon. For older adults, repetition at encoding increased the later likelihood of erroneously recognizing pragmatic inferences. For younger adults, repetition exerted the opposite effect. Both age groups, however, benefited from a second study-test trial. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar interaction on a cued recall test for younger adults, whereby repetition exerted different influences as a function of time permitted during retrieval. Implications for theories of memory and discourse processing are considered.

Keywords

False Alarm Rate False Memory False Recognition False Recall Recognition Probability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Atkinson, R. C., &Juola, J. F. (1973). Factors influencing speed and accuracy of word recognition. In S. Kornblum (Ed.),Attention and performance IV (pp. 583–612). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Balota, D. A., &Paul, S. T. (1996). Summation of activation: Evidence from multiple primes that converge and diverge within semantic memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 827–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett, J. C., Strater, L., &Fulton, A. (1991). False recency and false fame of faces in young adulthood and old age.Memory & Cognition,19, 177–188.Google Scholar
  4. Benjamin, A. S. (2001). On the dual effects of repetition on false recognition.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,27, 941–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bransford, J. D., &Franks, J. J. (1971). The abstraction of linguistic ideas.Cognitive Psychology,2, 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brewer, W. F. (1977). Memory for the pragmatic implications of sentences.Memory & Cognition,5, 673–678.Google Scholar
  7. Budson, A. E., Daffner, K. R., Desikan, R., &Schacter, D. L. (2000). When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: Gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer’s disease.Neuropsychology,14, 277–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan, J. C. K., McDermott, K. B. (2006). Remembering pragmatic inferences.Applied Cognitive Psychology,20, 633–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, J. C. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. III (in press). Retrieval-induced facilitation: Initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.Google Scholar
  10. Chan, J. C. K., McDermott, K. B., Watson, J. M., &Gallo, D. A. (2005). The importance of material-processing interactions in inducing false memories.Memory & Cognition,33, 389–395.Google Scholar
  11. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fletcher, C. R. (1994). Levels of representation in memory for discourse. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.),Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 589–607). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Garry, M., Manning, C. G., Loftus, E. F., &Sherman, S. J. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 208–214.Google Scholar
  14. Goff, L. M., &Roediger, H. L., III (1998). Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imaginings lead to illusory recollections.Memory & Cognition,26, 20–33.Google Scholar
  15. Hamilton, M., &Rajaram, S. (2003). States of awareness across multiple memory tasks: Obtaining a “pure” measure of conscious recollection.Acta Psychologica,112, 43–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, R. J., &Monaco, G. E. (1978). Psychology of pragmatic implication: Information processing between the lines.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,107, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hasher, L., &Zacks, R. T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and a new view. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (pp. 193–225). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hyman, I. E., Husband, T. H., &Billings, F. J. (1995). False memories of childhood experiences.Applied Cognitive Psychology,9, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory.Journal of Memory & Language,30, 513–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacoby, L. L. (1999). Ironic effects of repetition: Measuring age-related differences in memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacoby, L. L., Jones, T. C., &Dolan, P. O. (1998). Two effects of repetition: Support for a dual-process model of knowledge judgments and exclusion errors.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,5, 705–709.Google Scholar
  22. Jennings, J. M., &Jacoby, L. L. (1997). An opposition procedure for detecting age-related deficits in recollection: Telling effects of repetition.Psychology & Aging,12, 352–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jennings, J. M., &Jacoby, L. L. (2003). Improving memory in older adults: Training recollection.Neuropsychological Rehabilitation,13, 417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson, M. K., Bransford, J. D., &Solomon, S. K. (1973). Memory for tacit implications of sentences.Journal of Experimental Psychology,98, 203–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., &Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring.Psychological Bulletin,114, 3–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jones, T. C., &Jacoby, L. L. (2001). Feature and conjunction errors in recognition memory: Evidence for dual-process theory.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 82–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keefe, D. E., &McDaniel, M. A. (1993). The time course and durability of predictive inferences.Journal of Memory & Language,32, 446–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kensinger, E. A., &Schacter, D. L. (1999). When true memories suppress false memories: Effects of ageing.Cognitive Neuropsychology,16, 399–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klin, C. M., Guzmán, A. E., &Levine, W. H. (1999). Prevalence and persistence of predictive inferences.Journal of Memory & Language,40, 593–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Light, L. L., &Albertson, S. A. (1993). Comprehension of pragmatic implications in young and older adults. In L. L. Light & D. M. Burke (Eds.),Language, memory, and aging (pp. 133–153). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Loftus, E. F., &Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,13, 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 212–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McDermott, K. B. (2006). Paradoxical effects of testing: Repeated retrieval attempts enhance the likelihood of later accurate and false recall.Memory & Cognition,34, 261–267.Google Scholar
  34. McDermott, K. B., &Watson, J. M. (2001). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McElree, B., Dolan, P. O., &Jacoby, L. L. (1999). Isolating the contributions of familiarity and source information to item recognition: A time course analysis.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 563–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McKoon, G., &Ratcliff, R. (1986). Inferences about predictable events.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McKoon, G., &Ratcliff, R. (1992). Inference during reading.Psychological Review,99, 440–466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Postman, L. (1982). An examination of practice effects in recognition.Memory & Cognition,10, 333–340.Google Scholar
  39. Potts, G. R., Keenan, J. M., &Golding, J. M. (1988). Assessing the occurrence of elaborative inferences: Lexical decision versus naming.Journal of Memory & Language,27, 399–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Radvansky, G. A., Copeland, D. E., &Zwaan, R. A. (2003). Aging and functional spatial relations in comprehension and memory.Psychology & Aging,18, 161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Radvansky, G. A., Gerard, L. D., Zacks, R. T., &Hasher, L. (1990). Younger and older adults’ use of mental models as representations for text materials.Psychology & Aging,5, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Radvansky, G. A., Zwaan, R. A., Curiel, J. M., &Copeland, D. E. (2001). Situation models and aging.Psychology & Aging,16, 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reinitz, M. T., Lammers, W. J., &Cochran, B. P. (1992). Memoryconjunction errors: Miscombination of stored stimulus features can produce illusions of memory.Memory & Cognition,20, 1–11.Google Scholar
  44. Reyna, V. F., &Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy-trace theory: An interim synthesis.Learning & Individual Differences,7, 1–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roediger, H. L., III,Balota, D. A., &Watson, J. M. (2001). Spreading activation and arousal of false memories. In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. M. Surprenant (Eds.),The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 95–115). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roediger, H. L., III,Meade, M. L., &Bergman, E. T. (2001). Social contagion of memory.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,8, 365–371.Google Scholar
  48. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition.Psychological Review,103, 403–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Schacter, D. L., Koutstaal, W., Gross, M. S., Johnson, M. K., &Angell, K. E. (1997). False recollection induced by photographs: A comparison of older and younger adults.Psychology & Aging,12, 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singer, M., &Ferreira, F. (1983). Inferring consequences in story comprehension.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,22, 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sommers, M. S., &Lewis, B. P. (1999). Who really lives next door: Creating false memories with phonological neighbors.Journal of Memory & Language,40, 83–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thompson, C. P., Wenger, S. K., &Bartling, C. A. (1978). How recall facilitates subsequent recall: A reappraisal.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,4, 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Toth, J. P. (1996). Conceptual automaticity in recognition memory: Levels-of-processing effects on familiarity.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,50, 123–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness.Canadian Psychology,26, 1–12.Google Scholar
  55. van Dijk, T. A., &Kintsch, W. (1983).Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., &Balota, D. A. (2004). Attempting to avoid false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm: Assessing the combined influence of practice and warnings in young and old adults.Memory & Cognition,32, 135–141.Google Scholar
  57. Yonelinas, A. P. (2002). The nature of recollection and familiarity: A review of 30 years of research.Journal of Memory & Language,46, 441–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yonelinas, A. P., &Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Dissociations of processes in recognition memory: Effects of interference and of response speed.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,48, 516–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dxepartment of PsychologyWashington UniversitySt. Louis

Personalised recommendations