Advertisement

Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 303–308 | Cite as

Automated measure of conditioned orienting behavior in rats

  • Christopher S. Keene
  • David J. BucciEmail author
Articles
  • 365 Downloads

Abstract

The behavioral and neural mechanisms of orienting behavior have interested experimental psychologists for the last several decades. For example, in the framework of associative learning, examining the brain substrates of orienting behavior has yielded significant insight into the neural basis of attentional function and learning. The present study describes a procedure by which the orienting response to a visual stimulus (rearing on the hind legs) can be monitored automatically, and it validates the procedure by comparing data generated by the automated procedure with data generated by the typical observational procedure. The automated procedure provides an inexpensive means of obtaining immediate, online assessment of rearing behavior during a conditioning session, reduces the possibility of experimenter bias, and significantly reduces the time required to evaluate observational data.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Associative Strength Pavlovian Conditioning Animal Behavior Process Orient Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anagnostaras, S. G., Josselyn, S. A., Frankland, P. W., &Silva, A. J. (2000). Computer-assisted behavioral assessment of Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice.Learning & Memory,7, 58–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baxter, M. G., Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1997). Disruption of decrements in conditioned stimulus processing by selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input.Journal of Neuroscience,17, 5230–5236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baxter, M. G., Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1999). Blocking can occur without losses in attention in rats with selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input.Behavioral Neuroscience,113, 881–890.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bucci, D. J., &Chess, A. C. (2005). Specific changes in conditioned responding following neurotoxic damage to the posterior parietal cortex.Behavioral Neuroscience,119, 1580–1587.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bucci, D. J., Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1998). Removal of cholinergic input to rat posterior parietal cortex disrupts incremental processing of conditioned stimuli.Journal of Neuroscience,18, 8038–8046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiba, A. A., Bucci, D. J., Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1995). Basal forebrain cholinergic lesions disrupt increments but not decrements in conditioned stimulus processing.Journal of Neuroscience,15, 7315–7322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallagher, M., Graham, P. W., &Holland, P. C. (1990). The amygdala central nucleus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: Lesions impair one class of conditioned behavior.Journal of Neuroscience,10, 1906–1911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Han, J. S., Gallagher, M., &Holland, P. (1995). Hippocampal lesions disrupt decrements but not increments in conditioned stimulus processing.Journal of Neuroscience,15, 7323–7329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Holland, P. C. (1977). Conditioned stimulus as a determinant of the form of the Pavlovian conditioned response.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,3, 77–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Holland, P. C. (1979). Differential effects of omission contingencies on various components of Pavlovian appetitive conditioned responding in rats.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,5, 178–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Holland, P. C. (1984). Origins of behavior in Pavlovian conditioning. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 18, pp. 129–174). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Holland, P. C. (1997). Brain mechanisms for changes in processing of conditioned stimuli in Pavlovian conditioning: Implications for behavior theory.Animal Learning & Behavior,25, 373–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1993a). Amygdala central nucleus lesions disrupt increments, but not decrements, in conditioned stimulus processing.Behavioral Neuroscience,107, 246–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Holland, P. C., &Gallagher, M. (1993b). Effects of amygdala central nucleus lesions on blocking and unblocking.Behavioral Neuroscience,107, 235–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaye, H., &Pearce, J. M. (1984). The strength of the orienting response during Pavlovian conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,10, 90–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lang, P. J., Simons, R. F., &Balaban, M. T. (Eds.). (1997).Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Marchand, A. R., Luck, D., &DiScala, G. (2003). Evaluation of an improved automated analysis of freezing behavior in rats and its use in trace fear conditioning.Journal of Neuroscience Methods,126, 145–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pavlov, I. P. (1927).Conditioned reflexes. (G. V. Anrep, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Pearce, J. M., &Hall, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli.Psychological Review,47, 532–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ross, R. T., &LoLordo, V. M. (1986). Rearing in response to a visual conditioned stimulus: An index of associative strength or of associability?Learning & Motivation,17, 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sokolov, E. N. (1963).Perception and the conditioned reflex. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  22. Swan, J. A., &Pearce, J. M. (1988). The orienting response as an index of stimulus associability in rats.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,14, 292–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Wilson, P. N., Boumphrey, P., &Pearce, J. M. (1992). Restorations of the orienting response to a light by a change in its predictive accuracy.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,44B, 17–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesDarmouth CollegeHanover

Personalised recommendations