In this article, we present normative data for 2,423 Chinese single-character words. For each word, we report values for the following 15 variables: word frequency, cumulative frequency, homophone density, phonological frequency, age of learning, age of acquisition, number of word formations, number of meanings, number of components, number of strokes, familiarity, concreteness, imageability, regularity, and initial phoneme. To validate the norms, we collected word-naming latencies. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis show that naming latencies of Chinese single-character words are predicted by frequency, semantics, visual features, and consistency, but not by phonology. These analyses show distinct patterns in word naming between Chinese and alphabetic languages and demonstrate the utility of normative data in the study of nonalphabetic orthographic processing.
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This research was supported by Grants 60534080 and 30470574 from the Natural Science Foundation of China and Grant 7052035 from the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing to H.S., as well as Grant BCS-0131829 from the NSF to P.L.
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Liu, Y., Shu, H. & Li, P. Word naming and psycholinguistic norms: Chinese. Behavior Research Methods 39, 192–198 (2007). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193147
- Word Frequency
- Chinese Character
- Word Formation
- Cumulative Frequency
- Naming Latency