Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 389–395 | Cite as

The importance of material-processing interactions in inducing false memories

  • Jason C. K. Chan
  • Kathleen B. McDermott
  • Jason M. Watson
  • David A. Gallo
Article
  • 576 Downloads

Abstract

Deep encoding, relative to shallow encoding, has been shown to increase the probability of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Thapar & McDermott, 2001; Toglia, Neuschatz, & Goodwin, 1999). In two experiments, we showed important limitations on the generalizability of this phenomenon; these limitations are clearly predicted by existing theories regarding the mechanisms underlying such false memories (e.g., Roediger, Watson, McDermott, & Gallo, 2001). Specifically, asking subjects to attend to phonological relations among lists of phonologically associated words (e.g.,weep, steep, etc.) increased the likelihood of false recall (Experiment 1) and false recognition (Experiment 2) of a related, nonpresented associate (e.g.,sleep), relative to a condition in which subjects attended to meaningful relations among the words. These findings occurred along with a replication of prior findings (i.e., a semantic encoding task, relative to a phonological encoding task, enhanced the likelihood of false memory arising from a list of semantically associated words), and they place important constraints on theoretical explanations of false memory.

Keywords

False Memory False Recognition Critical Word False Recall List Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anisfeld, M. (1969). False recognition produced by semantic and phonetic relations under two presentation rates.Psychonomic Science,17, 366–367.Google Scholar
  2. Balota, D. A., Black, S. R., &Cheney, M. (1992). Automatic and attentional priming in young and older adults: Reevaluation of the twoprocess model.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,18, 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins, A. M., &Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing.Psychological Review,82, 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coltheart, V. (1977). Recognition errors after incidental learning as a function of different levels of processing.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,3, 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Craik, F. I. M., &Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davies, G. M., &Cubbage, A. (1976). Attribute coding at different levels of processing.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,28, 653–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Einstein, G. O., McDaniel, M. A., Owen, P. D., &Coté, N. C. (1990). Encoding and recall of texts: The importance of material appropriate processing.Journal of Memory & Language,29, 566–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Intraub, H., &Nicklos, S. (1985). Levels of processing and picture memory: The physical superiority effect.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 284–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., &Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring.Psychological Bulletin,114, 3–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. McDaniel, M. A., &Einstein, G. O. (1989). Material-appropriate processing: A contextualist approach to reading and studying strategies.Educational Psychology Review,1, 113–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McDermott, K. B., &Watson, J. M. (2001). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Morris, C. D., Bransford, J. D., &Franks, J. J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,16, 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited-capacity attention.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,106, 226–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Parkin, A. J. (1983). The relationship between orienting tasks and the structure of memory traces: Evidence from false recognition.British Journal of Psychology,74, 61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Reyna, V. F., &Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy trace theory: An interim synthesis.Learning & Individual Differences,7, 1–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rhodes, M. G., &Anastasi, J. S. (2000). The effects of a levels-ofprocessing manipulation on false recall.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,7, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roediger, H. L., III,Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., &Gallo, D. A. (2001). Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,8, 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schacter, D. L., Verfaellie, M., &Anes, M. D. (1997). Illusory memories in amnesic patients: Conceptual and perceptual false recognition.Neuropsychology,11, 331–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sommers, M. S., &Lewis, B. P. (1999). Who really lives next door: Creating false memories with phonological neighbors.Journal of Memory & Language,40, 83–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thapar, A., &McDermott, K. B. (2001). False recall and false recognition induced by presentation of associated words: Effects of retention interval and level of processing.Memory & Cognition,29, 424–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Toglia, M. P., Neuschatz, J. S., &Goodwin, K. A. (1999). Recall accuracy and illusory memories: When more is less.Memory,7, 233–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Watson, J. M., Balota, D. A., &Roediger, H. L., III (2003). Creating false memories with hybrid lists of semantic and phonological associates: Over-additive false memories produced by converging associative networks.Journal of Memory & Language,49, 95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wright, J., Ciccone, D. S., &Brelsford, J. W. (1977). Selective encoding processes in recognition.British Journal of Psychology,68, 289–295.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason C. K. Chan
    • 1
  • Kathleen B. McDermott
    • 1
  • Jason M. Watson
    • 1
  • David A. Gallo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWashington UniversitySt. Louis

Personalised recommendations