Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 789–796 | Cite as

Using PsyScope to conduct IAT experiments on Macintosh computers

  • Jennifer L. S. BortonEmail author
  • Mark A. Oakes
  • Margaret E. Van Wyk
  • Tyler A. Zink


The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) is one of the most widely used tools for assessing implicit attitudes. To date, most IAT experiments have been run using Inquisit, a PC-based program. In the present article, we describe a method for conducting IAT experiments using PsyScope, a free, downloadable, Macintosh-based program (see Bonatti, n.d., for the OS X version; Cohen, MacWhinney, Flatt, & Provost, 1993, for the OS 9 version). In addition, we explain how data can be imported into SPSS for analysis. Preliminary results indicate that, in comparison with the PC version of the IAT, the Macintosh version provides similar sensitivity in measuring implicit self-esteem. Our PsyScope script and SPSS syntax may be downloaded from


Negative Word Category Label Implicit Attitude Macintosh Computer Implicit Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material (27 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 340 KB.


  1. Banse, R., Seise, J., &Zerbes, N. (2001). Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: Reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT.Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie,48, 145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonatti, L. (n.d.).Welcome to the PsyScope X info page. Retrieved August 15, 2006, from Scholar
  3. Bosson, J. K., Swann, W. B., Jr., &Pennebaker, J. W. (2000). Stalking the perfect measure of implicit self-esteem: The blind men and the elephant revisited?Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,79, 631–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, J. D., &Dutton, K. A. (1995). The thrill of victory, the complexity of defeat: Self-esteem and people’s emotional reactions to success and failure.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,68, 712–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chambliss, H. O., Finley, C. E., &Blair, S. N. (2004). Attitudes toward obese individuals among exercise science students.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,36, 468–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, J., MacWhinney, B., Flatt, M., &Provost, J. (1993). PsyScope: An interactive graphic system for designing and controlling experiments in the psychology laboratory using Macintosh computers.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,25, 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dasgupta, N., McGhee, D. E., Greenwald, A. G., &Banaji, M. R. (2000). Automatic preference for White Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,36, 316–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farnham, S. D., Greenwald, A. G., &Banaji, M. R. (1999). Implicit self-esteem. In D. Abrams & M. A. Hogg (Eds.),Social identity and social cognition (pp. 230–248). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Gawronski, B. (2002). What does the Implicit Association Test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudicerelated IATs.Experimental Psychology,49, 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenwald, A. G., &Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,79, 1022–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., &Schwarz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,74, 1464–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenwald, A. G., &Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Task at age 3.Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie,48, 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., &Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,85, 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heatherton, T. F., &Polivy, J. (1991). Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self-esteem.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,60, 895–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jelenec, P., &Steffens, M. C. (2002). Implicit attitudes toward elderly women and men.Current Research in Social Psychology,7, 275–293.Google Scholar
  16. Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., &Zanna, M. P. (2005). Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: How implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals.Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,31, 693–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Hoshino-Browne, H., &Correll, J. (2003). Secure and defensive high self-esteem.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,85, 969–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karpinski, A. (2004). Measuring self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test: The role of the other.Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,30, 22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kitayama, S., &Karasawa, M. (1997). Implicit self-esteem in Japan: Name letters and birthday numbers.Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,23, 736–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McConnell, A., &Leibold, J. M. (2001). Relations among the Implicit Association Test, discriminatory behavior, and explicit measures of racial attitudes.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,37, 435–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ottaway, S. A., Hayden, D. C., &Oakes, M. A. (2001). Implicit attitudes and racism: Effects of word familiarity and frequency on the Implicit Association Test.Social Cognition,19, 97–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pinter, B., &Greenwald, A. G. (2005). Clarifying the role of the “other” category in the self-esteem IAT.Experimental Psychology,52, 74–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rowatt, W. C., Franklin, L. M., &Cotton, M. (2005). Patterns and personality correlates of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Christians and Muslims.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,44, 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rudman, L. A., Greenwald, A. G., Mellott, D. S., &Schwartz, J. L. K. (1999). Measuring the automatic components of prejudice: Flexibility and generality of the Implicit Association Test.Social Cognition,17, 437–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Spalding, L. R., &Hardin, C. D. (2000). Unconscious unease and selfhandicapping: Behavioral consequences of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem.Psychological Science,10, 535–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Teachman, B. A., Gapinski, K. D., Brownell, K. D., Rawlins, M., &Jeyaram, S. (2003). Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: The impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy.Health Psychology,22, 68–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, S. S., Brownell, K. D., &Wadden, T. A. (2004). The influence of the stigma of obesity on overweight individuals.International Journal of Obesity,28, 1333–1337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. S. Borton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mark A. Oakes
    • 1
  • Margaret E. Van Wyk
    • 1
  • Tyler A. Zink
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyHamilton CollegeClinton

Personalised recommendations