Advertisement

Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 277–286 | Cite as

The computational implementation of the landscape model: Modeling inferential processes and memory representations of text comprehension

  • Yuhtsuen Tzeng
  • Paul van den BroekEmail author
  • Panayiota Kendeou
  • Chengyuan Lee
Articles from the SCiP Conference

Abstract

The complexity of text comprehension demands a computational approach to describe the cognitive processes involved. In this article, we present the computational implementation of the landscape model of reading. This model captures both on-line comprehension processes during reading and the off-line memory representation after reading is completed, incorporating both memory-based and coherence-based mechanisms of comprehension. The overall architecture and specific parameters of the program are described, and a running example is provided. Several studies comparing computational and behavioral data indicate that the implemented model is able to account for cycle-by-cycle comprehension processes and memory for a variety of text types and reading situations.

Keywords

Work Memory Capacity Memory Representation Text Comprehension Landscape Model Connection Matrix 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Tzeng-BRM-2005.zip (7 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 340 KB.

References

  1. Applebee, A. N. (1978).The child’s concept of a story: Ages two to seventeen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Fletcher, C. R. (1994). Levels of representation in memory for discourse. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.),Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 589–607). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Fletcher, C. R., &Chrysler, S. T. (1990). Surface forms, textbases and situation models: Recognition memory for three types of textual information. Discourse Processes,13, 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gernsbacher, M. A. (1990).Language comprehension as structure Building. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Gluck, M. A., &Bower, G. H. (1988). From conditioning to category learning: An adaptive network model.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,117, 227–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldman, S. R., Golden, R., & van den Broek, P. (in press). Why are computational models of text comprehension useful? In F. Schmalhofer & C. Perfetti (Eds.),Higher level language processes in the Brain. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Graesser, A. [C]., Bertus, E. L., &Magliano, J. P. (1995). Inference generation during the comprehension of narrative text. In E. P. Lorch & E. J. O’Brien (Eds.),Sources of coherence in reading (pp. 295–320). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Graesser, A. C., &Clark, L. F. (1985).The structures and procedures of implicit knowledge. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  9. Graesser, A. C., Singer, M., &Trabasso, T. (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension.Psychological Review,101, 371–395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Just, A. M., &Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory.Psychological Review,99, 122–149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kendeou, P., & van den Broek, P. (2004, November).Modeling comprehension of non-narrative genres: Expository and refutation texts. Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  12. Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: Construction-integration model.Psychological Review,95, 163–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kintsch, W. (1998).Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kintsch, W., &van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Towards a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review,85, 363–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kintsch, W., Welsch, D. M., Schmalhofer, F., &Zimny, S. (1990). Sentence memory: Theoretical analysis.Journal of Memory & Language,29, 133–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Langston, M. C., &Trabasso, T. (1998). Modeling causal integration and availability of information during comprehension of narrative texts. In H. van Oostendorp & S. Goldman (Eds.),The construction of mental representations during reading (pp. 29–69). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Linderholm, T., &van den Broek, P. (2002). The effects of reading purpose and working memory capacity on the processing of expository text.Journal of Educational Psychology,94, 778–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Linderholm, T., Virtue, S., Tzeng, Y., &van den Broek, P. W. (2004). Fluctuations in the availability of information during reading: Capturing cognitive processes using the landscape model.Discourse Processes,37, 165–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mandler, J. M., &Johnson, N. S. (1977). Remembrance of things parsed: Story structure and recall.Cognitive Psychology,9, 111–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McClelland, J., &Rumelhart, D. (1985). Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,114, 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McClelland, J., &Rumelhart, D. (1986). A distributed model of human learning and memory. In J. L. McClelland, D. E. Rumelhart, & the PDP Research Group (Eds.),Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Vol. 2: Psychological and biological models (pp. 170–215). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. McKoon, G., Gerrig, R. J., &Greene, S. B. (1996). Pronoun resolution without pronouns: Some consequences of memory-based text processing.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 919–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Molinari, C. (2004).Inference of fictional characters’ emotions: Implementation in the landscape computational model of reading comprehension. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.Google Scholar
  24. Myers, J. L., &O’Brien, E. J. (1998). Accessing the discourse representation during reading.Discourse Processes,26, 131–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Narvaez, D., van den Broek, P., &Ruiz, A. B. (1999). The influence of reading purpose on inference generation and comprehension in reading.Journal of Educational Psychology,91, 488–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Brien, E. J., &Myers, J. L. (1999). Text comprehension: A view from the bottom up. In S. R. Goldman, A. C. Graesser & P. van den Broek (Eds.),Narrative comprehension, causality, and coherence: Essays in honor of Tom Trabasso (pp. 35–53). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. O’Brien, E. J., Rizzella, M. L., Albrecht, J. E., &Halleran, J. G. (1998). Updating a situation model: A memory-based text processing view.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,24, 1200–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rapp, D. N., Gerrig, R. J., &Prentice, D. A. (2001). Readers’ traitbased models of characters in narrative comprehension.Journal of Memory & Language,45, 737–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singer, M., Graesser, A. C., &Trabasso, T. (1994). Minimal or global inference during reading.Journal of Memory & Language,33, 421–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stein, N. L., &Glenn, C. G. (1979). An analysis of story comprehension in elementary school children. In R. O. Freedle (Ed.),New directions in discourse processing (Vol. 2, pp. 53–120). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Trabasso, T., Secco, T., &van den Broek, P. W. (1984). Causal cohesion and story coherence. In H. Mandle, N. L. Stein, & T. Trabasso (Eds.),Learning and comprehension of text (pp. 83–111). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. van den Broek, P. (1990). The causal inference maker: Towards a process model of inference generation in text comprehension. In D. A. Balota, G. B. Flores d’Arcais, & K. Rayner (Eds.),Comprehension processes in reading (pp. 423–445). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. van den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., Sung, Y. C., & Chen, M. (2003, June).Comprehension and memory of science texts: A simulation using the landscape model. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse, Madrid.Google Scholar
  34. van den Broek, P., Rapp, D. N., &Kendeou, P. (2005). Integrating memory-based and constructionist approaches in accounts of reading comprehension.Discourse Processes,39, 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. van den Broek, P., Risden, K., Fletcher, C. R., &Thurlow, R. (1996). A “landscape” view of reading: Fluctuating patterns of activation and the construction of a stable memory representation. In B. K. Britton & A. C. Graesser (Eds.),Models of understanding text (pp. 165–187). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. van den Broek, P., Risden, K., &Husebye-Hartmann, E. (1995). The role of readers’ standards of coherence in the generation of inferences during reading. In E. P. Lorch & E. J. O’Brien (Eds.),Sources of coherence in reading (pp. 353–373). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. van den Broek, P., Tzeng, Y., Virtue, S., Linderholm, T., & Young, M. (2001, November).Inference making and memory for text: A computational model. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  38. van den Broek, P., Young, M., Tzeng, Y., &Linderholm, T. (1999). The landscape model of reading: Inferences and the on-line construction of a memory representation. In H. van Oostendorp & S. R. Goldman (Eds.),The construction of mental representations during Reading (pp. 71–98). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. van Dijk, T. A., &Kintsch, W. (1983).Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Zwaan, R. A., Langston, M. C., &Graesser, A. C. (1995). The construction of situation models in narrative comprehension: An eventindexing model.Psychological Science,6, 292–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zwaan, R. A., Magliano, J. P., &Graesser, A. C. (1995). Dimensions of situation model construction in narrative comprehension.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 386–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuhtsuen Tzeng
    • 1
  • Paul van den Broek
    • 3
    Email author
  • Panayiota Kendeou
    • 3
  • Chengyuan Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.National Chung Cheng UniversityChia-YiTaiwan
  2. 2.National Kaohsiung Normal UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis

Personalised recommendations