Lexicosemantic, affective, and distributional norms for 1,000 Dutch adjectives

  • Steven VerheyenEmail author
  • Simon De Deyne
  • Sarah Linsen
  • Gert Storms


The research of the word is still very much the research of the noun. Adjectives have been largely overlooked, despite being the second-largest word class in many languages and serving an important communicative function, because of the rich, nuanced qualifications they afford. Adjectives are also ideally suited to study the interface between cognition and emotion, as they naturally cover the entire range of lexicosemantic variables such as imageability (infinitegreen), and affective variables such as valence (sadhappy). We illustrate this by showing how the centrality of words in the mental lexicon varies as a function of the words’ affective dimensions, using newly collected norms for 1,000 Dutch adjectives. The norms include the lexicosemantic variables age of acquisition, familiarity, concreteness, and imageability; the affective variables valence, arousal, and dominance; and a variety of distributional variables, including network statistics resulting from a large-scale word association study. The norms are freely available from, for researchers studying adjectives specifically or for whom adjectives constitute convenient stimuli to study other topics, such as vagueness, inference, spatial cognition, or affective word processing.


Age of acquisition Arousal Concreteness Dominance Familiarity Imageability Valence 



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Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Verheyen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Simon De Deyne
    • 2
  • Sarah Linsen
    • 1
  • Gert Storms
    • 1
  1. 1.KU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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