Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 1461–1481 | Cite as

Procura-PALavras (P-PAL): A Web-based interface for a new European Portuguese lexical database

  • Ana Paula SoaresEmail author
  • Álvaro Iriarte
  • José João de Almeida
  • Alberto Simões
  • Ana Costa
  • João Machado
  • Patrícia França
  • Montserrat Comesaña
  • Andreia Rauber
  • Anabela Rato
  • Manuel Perea


In this article, we present Procura-PALavras (P-PAL), a Web-based interface for a new European Portuguese (EP) lexical database. Based on a contemporary printed corpus of over 227 million words, P-PAL provides a broad range of word attributes and statistics, including several measures of word frequency (e.g., raw counts, per-million word frequency, logarithmic Zipf scale), morpho-syntactic information (e.g., parts of speech [PoSs], grammatical gender and number, dominant PoS, and frequency and relative frequency of the dominant PoS), as well as several lexical and sublexical orthographic (e.g., number of letters; consonant–vowel orthographic structure; density and frequency of orthographic neighbors; orthographic Levenshtein distance; orthographic uniqueness point; orthographic syllabification; and trigram, bigram, and letter type and token frequencies), and phonological measures (e.g., pronunciation, number of phonemes, stress, density and frequency of phonological neighbors, transposed and phonographic neighbors, syllabification, and biphone and phone type and token frequencies) for ~53,000 lemmatized and ~208,000 nonlemmatized EP word forms. To obtain these metrics, researchers can choose between two word queries in the application: (i) analyze words previously selected for specific attributes and/or lexical and sublexical characteristics, or (ii) generate word lists that meet word requirements defined by the user in the menu of analyses. For the measures it provides and the flexibility it allows, P-PAL will be a key resource to support research in all cognitive areas that use EP verbal stimuli. P-PAL is freely available at


Lexical databases Word frequency Orthographic word statistics Phonological word statistics European Portuguese 


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Paula Soares
    • 1
    Email author
  • Álvaro Iriarte
    • 2
  • José João de Almeida
    • 3
  • Alberto Simões
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ana Costa
    • 1
  • João Machado
    • 1
  • Patrícia França
    • 1
  • Montserrat Comesaña
    • 1
  • Andreia Rauber
    • 1
    • 4
  • Anabela Rato
    • 1
    • 5
  • Manuel Perea
    • 6
  1. 1.Human Cognition Lab, CIPsi, School of PsychologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Centre for Humanistic StudiesUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Computer Science and Technology CenterUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  4. 4.Computational Linguistics DepartmentUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  5. 5.Department of Spanish & PortugueseUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Department of MethodologyUniversity of ValènciaValenciaSpain

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