Advertisement

Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 1415–1429 | Cite as

Affective auditory stimulus database: An expanded version of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-E)

  • Wanlu Yang
  • Kai Makita
  • Takashi Nakao
  • Noriaki Kanayama
  • Maro G. Machizawa
  • Takafumi Sasaoka
  • Ayako Sugata
  • Ryota Kobayashi
  • Ryosuke Hiramoto
  • Shigeto Yamawaki
  • Makoto Iwanaga
  • Makoto Miyatani
Article

Abstract

Using appropriate stimuli to evoke emotions is especially important for researching emotion. Psychologists have provided several standardized affective stimulus databases—such as the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) as visual stimulus databases, as well as the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) and the Montreal Affective Voices as auditory stimulus databases for emotional experiments. However, considering the limitations of the existing auditory stimulus database studies, research using auditory stimuli is relatively limited compared with the studies using visual stimuli. First, the number of sample sounds is limited, making it difficult to equate across emotional conditions and semantic categories. Second, some artificially created materials (music or human voice) may fail to accurately drive the intended emotional processes. Our principal aim was to expand existing auditory affective sample database to sufficiently cover natural sounds. We asked 207 participants to rate 935 sounds (including the sounds from the IADS-2) using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) and three basic-emotion rating scales. The results showed that emotions in sounds can be distinguished on the affective rating scales, and the stability of the evaluations of sounds revealed that we have successfully provided a larger corpus of natural, emotionally evocative auditory stimuli, covering a wide range of semantic categories. Our expanded, standardized sound sample database may promote a wide range of research in auditory systems and the possible interactions with other sensory modalities, encouraging direct reliable comparisons of outcomes from different researchers in the field of psychology.

Keywords

Emotion Affective auditory stimuli Affective ratings International Affective Digitized Sounds SAM 

Notes

Author note

This research was supported by the Center of Innovation Program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). In addition, we thank Syouichi Shiota, Madoca Miyagi, and Shiho Kashihara for their kind advice on the manuscript and analysis. Special thanks to Yuko Sonobe, Shogo Aida, Narumi Yamagata, Masashi Nishijima, Aiko Nagao, and Noriko Miura for their assistance with the experiments and data collection.

Supplementary material

13428_2018_1027_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (554 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 553 kb)

References

  1. Armony, J. L., Aubé, W., Angulo-Perkins, A., Peretz, I., & Concha, L. (2015). The specificity of neural responses to music and their relation to voice processing: An fMRI-adaptation study. Neuroscience Letters, 593, 35–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2015.03.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Banse, R., & Scherer, K. R. (1996). Acoustic profiles in vocal emotion expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 614–636.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.614 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumgartner, T., Esslen, M., & Jäncke, L. (2006). From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 60, 34–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Belin, P., Fillion-Bilodeau, S., & Gosselin, F. (2008). The Montreal Affective Voices: A validated set of nonverbal affect bursts for research on auditory affective processing. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 531–539.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.2.531 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley, M., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring emotion: The Self-Assessment Manikin and the semantic differential. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 49–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(94)90063-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. P. J. (1999). International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-1): Stimuli, instruction manual, and affective ratings (Technical Report No. B-2). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Center for Research in Psychophysiology.Google Scholar
  7. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2000). Affective reactions to acoustic stimuli. Psychophysiology, 37, 204–215.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.3720204 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007a). The International Affective Digitized Sounds: Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual (Technical Report No. B-3). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007b). Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW): Instruction manual and affective ratings (Technical Report No. C-1). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Center for Research in Psychophysiology.Google Scholar
  10. Buodo, G., Sarlo, M., Mento, G., Messerotti Benvenuti, S., & Palomba, D. (2017). Unpleasant stimuli differentially modulate inhibitory processes in an emotional Go/NoGo task: An event-related potential study. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 127–138.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2015.1089842 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Castonguay, A. L., Sabiston, C. M., Crocker, P. R. E., & Mack, D. E. (2014). Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES). Body Image, 11, 126–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.12.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Castro, S. L., & Lima, C. F. (2010). Recognizing emotions in spoken language: A validated set of Portuguese sentences and pseudosentences for research on emotional prosody. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 74–81.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.1.74 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, Y., Lee, S., Choi, I. M., Jung, S., Park, Y. K., & Kim, C. (2015). International Affective Digitized Sounds in Korea: A cross-cultural adaptation and validation study. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 101, 134–144.  https://doi.org/10.3813/AAA.918811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choi, Y., Lee, S., Jung, S., Choi, I.-M., Park, Y.-K., & Kim, C. (2016). Erratum to: Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 827.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0596-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Czigler, I., Cox, T. J., Gyimesi, K., & Horváth, J. (2007). Event-related potential study to aversive auditory stimuli. Neuroscience Letters, 420, 251–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.05.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. da Silva, S. P., & Backs, R. W. (2015). Cardiac response during auditory selective attention to tones and affective sounds. Psychophysiology, 52, 1099–1105.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12432 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Drače, S., Efendić, E., Kusturica, M., & Landzo, L. (2013). Cross-cultural validation of the “international affective picture system”(IAPS) on a sample from bosnia and herzegovina. Psihologija, 46, 17–26. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/PSI1301017D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Droit-Volet, S., Ramos, D., Bueno, J. L. O., & Bigand, E. (2013). Music, emotion, and time perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 417:1–12. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00417 Google Scholar
  19. Dufey, M., Fernández, A. M., & Mayol, R. (2011). Adding support to cross-cultural emotional assessment: Validation of the International Affective Picture System in a Chilean sample. Universitas Psychologica, 10, 521–533.Google Scholar
  20. Ekman, P. (1992). Are there basic emotions? Psychological Review, 99, 550–553.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.99.3.550.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Esslen, M., Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Hell, D., Kochi, K., & Lehmann, D. (2004). Brain areas and time course of emotional processing. NeuroImage, 21, 1189–1203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fabiani, M., Kazmerski, V. A., Cycowicz, Y. M., & Friedman, D. (1996). Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: Effects of age and dementia. Psychophysiology, 33, 462–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fazio, R. H. (2001). On the automatic activation of associated evaluations: An overview. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 115–141.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0269993004200024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerdes, A. B. M., Wieser, M. J., & Alpers, G. W. (2014). Emotional pictures and sounds: A review of multimodal interactions of emotion cues in multiple domains. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1351:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01351 Google Scholar
  25. Iacobucci, D., & Duhachek, A. (2003). Advancing alpha: Measuring reliability with confidence. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13, 478–487.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1304_14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iwata, N., & Higuchi, H. R. (2000). Responses of Japanese and American university students to the STAI items that assess the presence or absence of anxiety. Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 48–62.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA740104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jaquet, L., Danuser, B., & Gomez, P. (2012). Music and felt emotions: How systematic pitch level variations affect the experience of pleasantness and arousal. Psychology of Music, 42, 51–70.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735612456583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juslin, P. N., & Laukka, P. (2003). Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code? Psychological Bulletin, 129, 770–814.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.770 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Krosnick, J. A., & Presser, S. (2010). Question and questionnaire design. In P. V. Marsden & J. D. Wright (Eds.), Handbook of survey research (pp. 263–314). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
  30. Lang, P. J. (1980). Behavioral treatment and bio-behavioral assessment: Computer applications. In J. B. Sidowski, J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), Technology in mental health care delivery (pp. 119–137). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  31. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Technical manual and affective ratings (Technical Report No. A-1). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention.Google Scholar
  32. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual (Technical Report A-8). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Center for Research in Psychophysiology.Google Scholar
  33. Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M., & Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: Affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophysiology, 30, 261–273.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1993.tb03352.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lindquist, K. A. (2010). The brain basis of emotion: A meta-analytic review. Dissertation Abstracts International, B: Sciences and Engineering, 71, 2744.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X11000446 Google Scholar
  35. Liu, P., & Pell, M. D. (2012). Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: A validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 1042–1051.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-012-0203-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lolli, S. L., Lewenstein, A. D., Basurto, J., Winnik, S., & Loui, P. (2015). Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: Results from congenital amusia. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1340:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01340 Google Scholar
  37. Marchewka, A., Zurawski, L., Jednoróg, K., & Grabowska, A. (2014). The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): Introduction to a novel, standardized, wide-range, high-quality, realistic picture database. Behavior Research Methods, 46, 596–610.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-013-0379-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Marin, M. M., Gingras, B., & Bhattacharya, J. (2012). Crossmodal transfer of arousal, but not pleasantness, from the musical to the visual domain. Emotion, 12, 618–631.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Mikels, J. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Larkin, G. R., Lindberg, C. M., Maglio, S. J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2005). Emotional category data on images from the International Affective Picture System. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 626–630.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192732 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pell, M. D., & Kotz, S. A. (2011). On the time course of vocal emotion recognition. PLoS ONE, 6, e27256.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027256 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Redondo, J., Fraga, I., Padrón, I., & Piñeiro, A. (2008). Affective ratings of sound stimuli. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 784–790.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.784 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Schindler, S., & Kissler, J. (2016). Selective visual attention to emotional words: Early parallel frontal and visual activations followed by interactive effects in visual cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3575–3587.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23261 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schirmer, A., & Kotz, S. A. (2006). Beyond the right hemisphere: Brain mechanisms mediating vocal emotional processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.11.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Shimizu, H., & Imae, K. (1981). Development of Japanese collegiate version of State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (in Japanese). Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 29, 62–67.Google Scholar
  46. Shuman, V., Clark-Polner, E., Meuleman, B., Sander, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2015). Emotion perception from a componential perspective. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 47–56.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2015.1075964 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Soares, A. P., Pinheiro, A. P., Costa, A., Frade, C. S., Comesaña, M., & Pureza, R. (2013). Affective auditory stimuli: Adaptation of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2) for European Portuguese. Behavior Research Methods, 45, 1168–1181.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-012-0310-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI: Manual for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (“Self-Evaluation Questionnaire”). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  49. Stevenson, R. A, & James, T. W. (2008). Affective auditory stimuli: Characterization of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) by discrete emotional categories. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 315–321.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.1.315 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Suk, H. J., & Irtel, H. (2010). Emotional response to color across media. Color Research and Application, 35, 64–77.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.20554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vieillard, S., Peretz, I., Gosselin, N., Khalfa, S., Gagnon, L., & Bouchard, B. (2008). Happy, sad, scary and peaceful musical excerpts for research on emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 720–752.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701503567 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zillmann, D. (1988). Mood management through communication choices. American Behavioral Scientist, 31, 327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wanlu Yang
    • 1
  • Kai Makita
    • 2
    • 3
  • Takashi Nakao
    • 1
  • Noriaki Kanayama
    • 2
  • Maro G. Machizawa
    • 2
  • Takafumi Sasaoka
    • 2
  • Ayako Sugata
    • 4
    • 5
  • Ryota Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Ryosuke Hiramoto
    • 1
  • Shigeto Yamawaki
    • 2
  • Makoto Iwanaga
    • 5
  • Makoto Miyatani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Graduate School of EducationHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health SciencesHiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  3. 3.Research Center for Child Mental DevelopmentUniversity of FukuiFukuiJapan
  4. 4.Ogaki Women’s CollegeGifuJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of Integrated Arts and SciencesHiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations