Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 112–130 | Cite as

Nonnaïveté among Amazon Mechanical Turk workers: Consequences and solutions for behavioral researchers

  • Jesse ChandlerEmail author
  • Pam Mueller
  • Gabriele Paolacci


Crowdsourcing services—particularly Amazon Mechanical Turk—have made it easy for behavioral scientists to recruit research participants. However, researchers have overlooked crucial differences between crowdsourcing and traditional recruitment methods that provide unique opportunities and challenges. We show that crowdsourced workers are likely to participate across multiple related experiments and that researchers are overzealous in the exclusion of research participants. We describe how both of these problems can be avoided using advanced interface features that also allow prescreening and longitudinal data collection. Using these techniques can minimize the effects of previously ignored drawbacks and expand the scope of crowdsourcing as a tool for psychological research.


Crowdsourcing Internet research Data quality Longitudinal research Mechanical Turk MTurk 


Author Note

Jesse Chandler, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Woodrow Wilson School of Public Policy, Princeton University (, Pam Mueller, Graduate Student, Department of Psychology, Princeton University (; Gabriele Paolacci, Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing Management, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University (

Jesse Chandler is now at PRIME Research, Ann Arbor, MI and The Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

The authors wish to thank John Myles White for help developing and testing the API syntax and Elizabeth Ingriselli for her help coding data.

Correspondence concerning this article can be addressed to any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13428_2013_365_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (42 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 42 kb)


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesse Chandler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pam Mueller
    • 2
  • Gabriele Paolacci
    • 3
  1. 1.Woodrow Wilson School of Public AffairsPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  3. 3.Rotterdam School of ManagementErasmus UniversityRotterdamNetherlands

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