Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 569–575 | Cite as

Using Rescorla’s truly random control condition to measure truly exogenous covert orienting

  • Mohammad Habibnezhad
  • Michael A. Lawrence
  • Raymond M. KleinEmail author
Brief Report


Studies of exogenous covert orienting use peripheral cues (stimuli) that are spatially uninformative about the locations of subsequent targets. When the time course of the cue’s influence on performance is explored (by varying the cue target onset asynchrony; CTOA), a biphasic pattern is usually seen with better performance at the cued location when the CTOA is short (typically attributed to attentional capture) and worse performance at the cued location when the CTOA is long (attributed to inhibition of return). However, while spatially uninformative, these cues (even when a nonaging foreperiod is used) entail a temporal contingency with the subsequent target. Consequently, this so-called capture may reflect an unintended consequence of endogenous allocation of temporal attention. Following Lawrence and Klein (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 560–572, 2013) we used Rescorla’s (Psychological Review, 74, 71–80, 1967) truly random control condition to ensure that the spatially uninformative peripheral stimuli were temporally completely uninformative. Even such completely uninformative peripheral stimuli generated the prototypical biphasic pattern.


Attentional capture Inhibition of return Spatial attention Uninformative cueing Temporal uncertainty 


Author note

The research described here was supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant to Raymond Klein. The instructions, stimuli, program, data files, and analysis scripts associated with the research presented here are posted at

Supplementary material

13423_2018_1544_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (204 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 204 kb)


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Habibnezhad
    • 1
  • Michael A. Lawrence
    • 1
  • Raymond M. Klein
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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