One is not enough: Group size modulates social gaze-induced object desirability effects
- 551 Downloads
Affective evaluations of objects are influenced by the preferences expressed by other people via their gaze direction, so that objects looked at are liked more than objects looked away from. But when can others’ preferences be trusted? Here, we show that group size influences the extent to which individuals tend to conform to others’ gaze preferences. We adopted the conventional gaze-cuing paradigm and modified the design in such a way that some objects were consistently cued by only one face (single-face condition), whereas other objects were consistently cued by several different faces (multiple-faces condition). While response time measures revealed equal gaze-cuing effects for both conditions, a boost in affective evaluation was observed only for objects looked at by several different faces. Objects looked at by a single face were not rated differently than objects looked away from. These findings suggest that observers make use of group size to evaluate the generalizability of the epistemic information conveyed by others’ gaze: Objects looked at are liked more than objects looked away from, but only when they are looked at by multiple faces.
KeywordsGaze cuing Liking Object evaluation Group size Conformity
This work received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 312919 to CB.
- Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 694–724.Google Scholar
- Frischen, A., & Tipper, S. P. (2004). Orienting attention via observed gaze shift evokes longer term inhibitory effects: Implications for social interactions, attention, and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(4), 516–533.Google Scholar
- Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 192–238). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
- Kruglanski, A. W., Raviv, A., Bar-Tal, D., Raviv, A., Sharvit, K., Bar, R., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L. (2005). Says who? Epistemic authority effects in social judgment. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 37, pp. 345–390). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Manera, V., Elena, M. R., Bayliss, A. P., & Becchio, C. (2014). When seeing is more than looking: Intentional gaze modulates object desirability. Emotion, 14(14), 824–832. doi: 10.1037/a0036258.
- Shimojo, S., Simion, C., Shimojo, E., & Schieir, C. (2003). Gaze bias reflects and influences preference. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1–6.Google Scholar