Memory & Cognition

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 33–46 | Cite as

Knowledge revision through the lenses of the three-pronged approach

  • Panayiota KendeouEmail author
  • Reese Butterfuss
  • Jasmine Kim
  • Martin Van Boekel


In the present study, we employed the three-pronged approach to determine the actual cognitive processes theorized in knowledge revision. First, the Knowledge Revision Components (KReC) framework was identified as the guiding theory. Second, think-aloud analysis highlighted at which points in refutation texts readers detected discrepancies between their incorrect, commonsense beliefs and the correct beliefs, and the exact processes with which they dealt with these discrepancies—successfully or unsuccessfully, as indicated by posttest scores. Third, corroborating reading-time data and posttest data demonstrated that the structure of the refutation texts facilitated the coactivation and integration of the explanation with the commonsense belief, resulting in knowledge revision. Finally, an analysis directly connected the processes identified during think-aloud to sentence reading times. These findings systematically identify the cognitive processes theorized during knowledge revision and, in doing so, provide evidence for the conditions for revision outlined in the KReC framework.


Knowledge revision Refutation texts Three-pronged approach Think-aloud Cognitive processes 



The authors would like to thank Jean-Baptiste Quillien and Isabella Albright for their assistance with data collection and coding. Preparation of this manuscript was supported by the Guy Bond Endowed Chair in Reading.


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Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panayiota Kendeou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reese Butterfuss
    • 1
  • Jasmine Kim
    • 1
  • Martin Van Boekel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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