Frontotemporal neural systems supporting semantic processing in Alzheimer’s disease
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We hypothesized that semantic memory for object concepts involves both representations of visual feature knowledge in modality-specific association cortex and heteromodal regions that are important for integrating and organizing this semantic knowledge so that it can be used in a flexible, contextually appropriate manner. We examined this hypothesis in an fMRI study of mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants were presented with pairs of printed words and asked whether the words matched on a given visual–perceptual feature (e.g., guitar, violin: SHAPE). The stimuli probed natural kinds and manufactured objects, and the judgments involved shape or color. We found activation of bilateral ventral temporal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during semantic judgments, with AD patients showing less activation of these regions than healthy seniors. Moreover, AD patients showed less ventral temporal activation than did healthy seniors for manufactured objects, but not for natural kinds. We also used diffusion-weighted MRI of white matter to examine fractional anisotropy (FA). Patients with AD showed significantly reduced FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which carry projections linking temporal and frontal regions of this semantic network. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that semantic memory is supported in part by a large-scale neural network involving modality-specific association cortex, heteromodal association cortex, and projections between these regions. The semantic deficit in AD thus arises from gray matter disease that affects the representation of feature knowledge and processing its content, as well as white matter disease that interrupts the integrated functioning of this large-scale network.
KeywordsSemantics Embodied cognition Prefrontal cortex
We are grateful to Keerthi Chandrasekaran for assistance with data collection and processing. We thank the radiographers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania for their assistance with data collection, and the volunteers for their participation. The research reported in this publication was supported in part by the National Institutes on Aging and Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health under Award Nos. R01AG038490, R01AG015116, R01AG017586, R01AG032953, R01NS044266, and R01NS053488. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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