An attentional-adaptation account of spatial negative priming: Evidence from event-related potentials
Negative priming (NP) refers to a slower response to a target stimulus if it has been previously ignored. To examine theoretical accounts of spatial NP, we recorded behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a target localization task. A target and distractor briefly appeared, and the participant pressed a key corresponding to the target’s location. The probability of the distractor appearing in each of four locations varied, whereas the target appeared with equal probabilities in all locations. We found that response times (RTs) were fastest when the prime distractor appeared in its most probable (frequent) location and when the prime target appeared in the location that never contained a distractor. Moreover, NP effects varied as a function of location: They were smallest when targets followed distractors in the frequent distractor location—a finding not predicted by episodic-retrieval or suppression accounts of NP. The ERP results showed that the P2, an ERP component associated with attentional orientation, was smaller in prime displays when the distractor appeared in its frequent location. Moreover, no differences were apparent between negative-prime and control trials in the N2, which is associated with suppression processes, nor in the P3, which is associated with episodic retrieval processes. These results indicate that the spatial NP effect is caused by both short- and long-term adaptation in preferences based on the history of inspecting unsuccessful locations. This article is dedicated to the memory of Edward E. Smith, and we indicate how this study was inspired by his research career.
KeywordsNegative priming Attentional adaptation ERPs P2 N2 P3
This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health Grant Nos. 5R01MH052808 and T32MH019983. We thank J. T. Bates for programming assistance, K. Halfmann and I. Cutler for help with data collection, and A. Manelis and C. Paynter for comments on previous drafts of the manuscript.
- Banks, W. P., Roberts, D., & Ciranni, M. (1995). Negative priming in auditory attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 1354–1361.Google Scholar
- Hoffmann, J., & Kunde, W. (1999). Location-specific target expectancies in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1127–1141.Google Scholar
- Houghton, G., & Tipper, S. P. (1994). A model of inhibitory mechanisms in selective attention. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 53–112). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Nieuwenhuis, S., Yeung, N., van den Wildenberg, W., & Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2003). Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 17–26. doi: 10.3758/CABN.3.1.17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polk, T., Drake, R., Jonides, J., Smith, M., & Smith, E. E. (2008). Attention enhances the neural processing of relevant features and suppresses the processing of irrelevant features in humans: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the Stroop task. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 13786–13792.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Posner, M. I., & Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of visual orienting. In H. Bouma & D. G. Bouwhuis (Eds.), Attention and performance X: Control of language processes (pp. 531–556). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Reder, L. M., & Weber, K. H. (1997, November). Spatial habituation and expectancy effects in a negative priming paradigm. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
- Smith, E. E., Haviland, S. E., Reder, L. M., Brownell, H., & Adams, N. (1976). When preparation fails: Disruptive effects of prior information on perceptual recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 151–161. doi: 10.1037/0096-15188.8.131.52 PubMedGoogle Scholar