Advertisement

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 790–802 | Cite as

The relationship between depressive symptoms and error monitoring during response switching

  • Hans S. Schroder
  • Tim P. Moran
  • Zachary P. Infantolino
  • Jason S. MoserEmail author
Article

Abstract

Heightened sensitivity to failure and negative information is thought to be an important maintenance mechanism for symptoms of depression. However, the specific neural and behavioral correlates of the abnormal reactions to errors associated with depression are not yet well understood. The present study was designed to shed new light on this issue by examining how depressive symptoms relate to error monitoring in the context of different task demands. We used a modified flanker task in which the stimulus–response (S–R) mappings were reversed between blocks, differentiating relatively easy nonreversal blocks from the more-demanding S–R reversal blocks. Undergraduates performed this task and then completed a self-report measure of anhedonic depression. The results revealed that depressive symptoms were related to poorer posterror accuracy in the more-difficult S–R reversal blocks, but not in the easier nonreversal blocks. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) within a subsample of these participants further indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with reduced error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in both block types, suggesting that depressive symptoms were related to reduced attention allocation to errors across the easy and hard blocks. Finally, brain–behavior correlations indicated that highly depressed individuals failed to display a relationship between Pe amplitude and posterror accuracy in the S–R reversal blocks, a relationship that was intact in the low-depression group. Together, these results suggest that task demands play a critical role in the emergence of error-monitoring abnormalities in depression.

Keywords

Depression Posterror adjustments Error monitoring Response switching 

Supplementary material

13415_2013_184_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (25 kb)
Table S1 Studies included in the comparison between more difficult versus less difficult tasks. The citations for these articles may be found in the References section in the main text. (PDF 24 kb)

References

  1. Alexopoulos, G. S., Murphy, C. F., Gunning-Dixon, F. M., Kalayam, B., Katz, R., Kanellopoulos, D., & Foxe, J. J. (2007). Event-related potentials in an emotional go/no-go task and remission of geriatric depression. NeuroReport, 18, 217–221. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328013ceda CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, M.-P., Mitchell, P., & Goodwin, G. M. (2001). Cognitive deficits in depression: Possible implications for functional neuropathology. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 200–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beats, B. C., Sahakian, B. J., & Levy, R. (1996). Cognitive performance in tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in the elderly depressed. Psychological Medicine, 26, 591–603. doi: 10.1017/S003329170035662 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T. (2008). The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 969–977. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08050721 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  7. Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108, 624–652. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.624 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Braver, T. S. (2012). The variable nature of cognitive control: A dual mechanisms framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 106–113. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.12.010 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Braver, T. S., Gray, J. R., & Burgess, G. C. (2007). Explaining the many varieties of working memory variation: Dual mechanisms of cognitive control. In A. R. A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M. J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J. N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 76–106). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bredemeier, K., Spielberg, J. M., Silton, R. L., Berenbaum, H., Heller, W., & Miller, G. A. (2010). Screening for depressive disorders using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Psychological Assessment, 22, 702–710. doi: 10.1037/a0019915 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter, C. S., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Noll, D., & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science, 280, 747–749. doi: 10.1126/science.280.5364.747 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiu, P. H., & Deldin, P. J. (2007). Neural evidence for enhanced error detection in major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 608–616. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.4.608 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Compton, R. J., Lin, M., Vargas, G., Carp, J., Fineman, S. L., & Quandt, L. C. (2008). Error detection and posterror behavior in depressed undergraduates. Emotion, 8, 58–67. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.1.58 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Danielmeier, C., & Ullsperger, M. (2011). Post-error adjustments. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 1–10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Lissnyder, E., Koster, E. H. W., Everaert, J., Schacht, R., Van den Abeele, D., & Raedt, R. (2012). Internal cognitive control in clinical depression: General but no emotion-specific impairment. Psychiatry Research, 199, 124–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Debener, S., Ullsperger, M., Siegel, M., Fiehler, K., von Cramon, D. Y., & Engel, A. K. (2005). Trial-by-trial coupling of concurrent electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging identifies the dynamics of performance monitoring. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 11730–11737.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dehaene, S., Posner, M. I., & Tucker, D. M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 5, 303–305. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00630.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 674–685. doi: 10.1037/h0077149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dweck, C. S., & Reppucci, N. D. (1973). Learned helplessness and reinforcement responsibility in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 109–116. doi: 10.1037/h0034248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elliot, R., Sahakian, B. J., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1997). Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: Evidence for a diagnosis specific impairment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 63, 74–82. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.63.1.74 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elliot, R., Sahakian, B. J., McKay, A. P., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1996). Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: The influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance. Psychological Medicine, 26, 975–989. doi: 10.1017/S003329170035303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Engels, A. S., Heller, W., Spielberg, J. M., Warren, S. L., Sutton, B. P., Banich, M. T., & Miller, G. A. (2010). Co-occurring anxiety influences patterns of brain activity in depression. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 141–156. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.1.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Engels, A. S., Heller, W., Mohanty, A., Herrington, J. D., Banich, M. T., Webb, A. G., & Miller, G. A. (2007). Specificty of regional brain activity in anxiety types during emotion processing. Psychophysiology, 44, 352–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143–149. doi: 10.3758/BF03203267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fales, C. L., Barch, D. M., Burgess, G. C., Schaefer, A., Mennin, D. S., Gray, J. R., & Braver, T. S. (2008a). Anxiety and cognitive efficiency: Differential modulation of transient and sustained neural activity during a working memory task. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 239–253. doi: 10.3758/CABN.8.3.239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fales, C. L., Barch, D. M., Rundle, M. M., Mintun, M. A., Snyder, A. Z., Cohen, J. D., ... Sheline, Y. I. (2008b). Altered emotional interference processing in affective and cognitive-control brain circuitry in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 15, 377–384. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fisher, J. E., Sass, S. M., Heller, W., Silton, R. L., Edgar, C. E., Stewart, J. L., & Miller, G. A. (2010). Time course of processing emotional stimuli as a function of perceived emotional intelligence, anxiety, and depression. Emotion, 4, 486–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frank, M. J., D’Lauro, C. D., & Curran, T. (2007). Cross-task individual differences in error processing: Neural, electrophysiological, and genetic components. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 297–308. doi: 10.3758/CABN.7.4.297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., & Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4, 385–390. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00586.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gehring, W. J., Liu, Y., Orr, J. M., & Carp, J. (2012). The error-related negativity (ERN/Ne). In S. J. Luck & E. Kappenman (Eds.), Oxford handbook of event-related potential components (pp. 231–291). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Georgiadi, E., Liotti, M., Nixon, N. L., & Liddle, P. F. (2011). Electrophysiological evidence for abnormal error monitoring in recurrent major depressive disorder. Psychophysiology, 48, 1192–1202. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01198.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gratton, G., Coles, M. G. H., & Donchin, E. (1983). A new method for the off-line removal of ocular artifact. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 468–484. doi: 10.1016/0013-4694(83)90135-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hajcak, G., McDonald, N., & Simons, R. F. (2003). To err is autonomic: Error-related brain potentials, ANS activity, and post-error compensatory behavior. Psychophysiology, 40, 895–903. doi: 10.1111/1469-8986.00107 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartlage, S., Alloy, L. B., Vázquez, C., & Dykman, B. (1993). Automatic and effortful processing in depression. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 247–278. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.247 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Herrmann, M. J., Römmler, J., Ehlis, A., Heidrich, A., & Fallgatter, A. J. (2004). Source localization (LORETA) of the error-related-negativity (ERN/Ne) and positivity (Pe). Cognitive Brain Research, 20, 294–299. doi: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.02.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hester, R., Madeley, J., Murphy, K., & Mattingley, J. B. (2009). Learning from errors: Error-related neural activity predicts improvements in future inhibitory control performance. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 7158–7165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2007). Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: Relationship to subclinical measures of depression. Emotion, 7, 68–76. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.1.68 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2008). Spatiotemporal dynamics of error processing dysfunctions in major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 179–188. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.19 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2010). Effects of task-relevant incentives on the electrophysiological correlates of error processing in Major Depressive Disorder. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. (2002). The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679–709. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.109.4.679 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hsieh, S., & Wu, M. (2011). Electrophysiological correlates of preparation and implementation for different types of task shifts. Brain Research, 1423, 41–52. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.09.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hughes, G., & Yeung, N. (2011). Dissociable correlates of response conflict and error awareness in error-related brain activity. Neuropsychologia, 49, 405–415. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.11.036 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jentzsch, I., & Dudschig, C. (2009). Why do we slow down after an error? Mechanisms underlying the effects of post-error slowing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 209–218. doi: 10.1080/17470210802240655 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones, N. P. M., Siegle, G. J., Muelly, E. R., Haggerty, A., & Ghinassi, F. (2010). Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough? Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 129–140. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.1.129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalayam, B., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (2003). A preliminary study of left frontal region error negativity and symptom improvement in geriatric depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 2054–2056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. (2007). Design and analysis. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Kerns, J. G., Cohen, J. D., MacDonald, A. W., Cho, R. Y., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. Science, 303, 1023–1026. doi: 10.1126/science.1089910 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein, D. C., Fencil-Morse, E., & Seligman, M. E. (1976). Learned helplessness, depression, and the attribution of failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 508–516. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.33.5.508 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Krug, M. K., & Carter, C. S. (2012). Proactive and reactive control during emotional interference and its relationship to trait anxiety. Brain Research, 1481, 13–36.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ladouceur, C. D., Slifka, J. S., Dahl, R. E., Beirmaher, B., Axelson, D. A., & Ryan, N. D. (2012). Altered error-related brain activity in youth with major depression. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 351–362. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2012.01.005 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Larson, C. L., Nitschke, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Common and distinct patterns of affective response in dimensions of anxiety and depression. Emotion, 7, 182–191. doi: 10.10137/1528-3542.7.1.182 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. MacDonald, A. W., Cohen, J. D., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science, 288, 1835–1838. doi: 10.1126/science.288.5472.1835 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Meiran, N., Diamond, G. M., Todor, D., & Nemtes, B. (2010). Cognitive rigidity in unipolar depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Examination of task switching, Stroop, working memory updating and post-conflict adaptation. Psychiatry Research, 185, 149–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Moran, T. P., Taylor, D., & Moser, J. S. (2012). Sex moderates the relationship between worry and performance-monitoring ERPs in undergraduates. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 85, 188–194. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.05.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Moser, J. S., Moran, T. P., & Jendrusina, A. A. (2012). Parsing relationships between dimensions of anxiety and action monitoring brain potentials in female undergraduates. Psychophysiology, 49, 3–10. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01279.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moser, J. S., & Schroder, H. S. (2012). Making sense of it all? Cognitive and behavioral mechanisms needing clarification in the meaning maintenance model. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moser, J. S., Schroder, H. S., Heeter, C., Moran, T. P., & Lee, Y.-H. (2011). Mind your errors: Evidence for a neural mechanism linking growth mind-set to adaptive post-error adjustments. Psychological Science, 22, 1484–1489. doi: 10.1177/0956797611419520 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Murphy, P. R., Robertson, I. H., Allen, D., Hester, R., & O’Connell, R. G. (2012). An electrophysiological signal that precisely tracks the emergence of error awareness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6(65), 1–16. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.0006 Google Scholar
  63. Nieuwenhuis, S., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Blom, J., Band, G. P., & Kok, A. (2001). Error-related brain potentials are differentially related to awareness of response errors: Evidence from an antisaccade task. Psychophysiology, 38, 752–760. doi: 10.1017/S0048577201001111 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nitschke, J. B., Heller, W., Imig, J. C., McDonald, R. P., & Miller, G. A. (2001). Distinguishing dimensions of anxiety and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 1–22. doi: 10.1023/A:102648553040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nitschke, J. B., Heller, W., Palmieri, P. A., & Miller, G. A. (1999). Contrasting patterns of brain activity in anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. Psychophysiology, 36, 628–637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. (1986). Learned helplessness in children: A longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 435–442. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.2.435 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Notebaert, W., Houtman, F., Van Opstal, F., Gevers, W., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2009). Post-error slowing: An orienting account. Cognition, 111, 275–279. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.02.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Núñez Castellar, E., Kühn, S., Fias, W., & Notebaert, W. (2010). Outcome expectancy and not accuracy determines posterror slowing: ERP support. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 270–278. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.2.270 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Olvet, D. M., & Hajcak, G. (2008). The error-related negativity (ERN) and psychopathology: Toward an endophenotype. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1343–1354.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Olvet, D. M., & Hajcak, G. (2009). The stability of error-related brain activity with increasing trials. Psychophysiology, 46, 957–961.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Olvet, D. M., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2010). Depression symptom severity and error-related brain activity. Psychiatry Research, 179, 30–37. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.06.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Osinsky, R., Alexander, N., Gebhardt, H., & Hennig, J. (2010). Trait anxiety and dynamic adjustments in conflict processing. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 372–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Overbeek, T. J. M., Nieuwenhuis, S., & Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2005). Dissociable components of error processing: On the functional significance of the Pe vis-à-vis the ERN/Ne. Journal of Psychophysiology, 19, 319–329. doi: 10.1027/0269-8803.19.4.319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pavlov I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes (G. V. Anrep, Trans.). London, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Frontocingulate dysfunction in depression: Toward biomarkers of treatment response. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 183–206. doi: 10.1038/npp. 2010.166 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pizzagalli, D. A., Peccoralo, L. A., Davidson, R. J., & Cohen, J. D. (2006). Resting anterior cingulate activity and abnormal responses to errors in subjects with elevated depressive symptoms: A 128-channel EEG study. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 185–201. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20172 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rabbitt, P. (1966). Errors and error correction in choice-response tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 264–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ridderinkhof, K. R., Ramautar, J. R., & Wijnen, J. G. (2009). To Pe or not to Pe: A P3-like ERP component reflecting the processing of response errors. Psychophysiology, 46, 531–538. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00790.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Riesel, A., Weinberg, A., Endrass, T., Meyer, A., & Hajcak, G. (2013). The ERN is the ERN is the ERN? Convergent validity of error-related brain activity across different tasks. Biological Psychology, 93, 377–385. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Weingartner, H., Bierer, L., Thompson, K., & Post, R. M. (1986). Effortful and automatic cognitive processes in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 265–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ruchsow, M., Herrnberger, B., Beschoner, P., Gron, G., Spitzer, M., & Kiefer, M. (2006). Error processing in major depressive disorder: Evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 37–46. doi: 10.1016/j.psychires.2005.02.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ruchsow, M., Herrnberger, B., Wiesend, C., Gron, G., Spitzer, M., & Kiefer, M. (2004). The effect of erroneous responses on response monitoring in patients with major depressive disorder: A study with event-related potentials. Psychophysiology, 41, 833–840. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2004.00237.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rushworth, M. F. S., Hadland, K. A., Paus, T., & Sipila, P. K. (2002a). Role of the human medial frontal cortex in task switching: A combined fMRI and TMS study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 2577–2592. doi: 10.1152/jn.00812.2001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rushworth, M. F. S., Passingham, R. E., & Nobre, A. C. (2002b). Components of switching intentional set. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1139–1150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sass, S. M., Heller, W., Stewart, J. L., Silton, R. L., Edgar, J. C., Fisher, J. E., & Miller, G. A. (2010). Time course of attentional bias in anxiety: Emotion and gender specificity. Psychophysiology, 47, 247–259. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00926.x PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schrijvers, D., de Bruijn, E. R. A., Maas, Y., De Grave, C., Sabbe, B. G. C., & Hulstijn, W. (2008). Action monitoring in major depressive disorder with psychomotor retardation. Cortex, 44, 569–579. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2007.08.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Schrijvers, D., de Bruijn, E. R. A., Maas, Y. J., Vancoillie, P., Hulstinj, W., & Sabbe, B. G. C. (2009). Action monitoring and depressive symptom reduction in major depressive disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71, 218–224. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.09.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schroder, H. S., Moran, T. P., Moser, J. S., & Altmann, E. M. (2012). When the rules are reversed: Action-monitoring consequences of reversing stimulus–response mappings. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 629–643. doi: 10.3758/s13415-012-0105-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Siegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Thase, M. E., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2002). Can’t shake that feeling: Event-related fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 693–707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Spielberg, J. M., Heller, W., Silton, R. L., Stewart, J. L., & Miller, G. A. (2011). Approach and avoidance profiles distinguish dimension of anxiety and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 359–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Steinhauser, M., & Yeung, N. (2010). Decision processes in human performance monitoring. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 15643–15653. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1899-10.2010 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.121.1.15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Treadway, M. T., Bossaller, N. A., Shelton, R. C., & Zald, D. H. (2012). Effort-based decision-making in major depressive disorder: A translational model of motivational anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 553–558.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Treadway, M. T., & Zald, D. H. (2011). Reconsidering anhedonia in depression: Lessons from translational neuroscience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 537–555.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ullsperger, M., Harsay, H. A., Wessel, J. R., & Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2010). Conscious perception of errors and its relation to the anterior insula. Brain Structure and Function, 214, 629–643. doi: 10.1007/s00429-010-0261-1 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. van Veen, V., & Carter, C. S. (2002). The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 593–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Waszak, F., Hommel, B., & Allport, A. (2003). Task-switching and long-term priming: Role of episodic stimulus–task bindings in task-shift costs. Cognitive Psychology, 46, 361–413. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0285(02)00520-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1991). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (Unpublished manuscript). Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  99. Weinberg, A., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2012). Increased error-related brain activity distinguishes generalized anxiety disorder with and without comorbid major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 885–896.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Weingartner, H., Cohen, R. M., Martello, J. D. I., & Gerdt, C. (1981). Cognitive processes in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 42–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wenzlaff, R. M., & Grozier, S. A. (1988). Depression and the magnification of failure. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 90–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yeung, N., Botvinick, M. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural basis of error detection: Conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 111, 931–959. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.111.4.931 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans S. Schroder
    • 1
  • Tim P. Moran
    • 1
  • Zachary P. Infantolino
    • 2
  • Jason S. Moser
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations