The bivalency effect represents an interference-triggered adjustment of cognitive control: An ERP study
When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two different tasks) occur occasionally among univalent stimuli, performance is slowed on subsequent univalent stimuli even if they have no overlapping stimulus features. This finding has been labeled the bivalency effect. It indexes an adjustment of cognitive control, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood yet. The purpose of the present study was to shed light on this question, using event-related potentials. We used a paradigm requiring predictable alternations between three tasks, with bivalent stimuli occasionally occurring on one task. The results revealed that the bivalency effect elicited a sustained parietal positivity and a frontal negativity, a neural signature that is typical for control processes implemented to resolve interference. We suggest that the bivalency effect reflects interference, which may be caused by episodic context binding.
KeywordsBivalent stimuli Task switching Conflict
This work was supported by a grant from the Janggen-Pöhn Foundation to A. Rey-Mermet, by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 130104) to B. Meier and by the Center for Cognition Learning and Memory, University of Bern. We thank Julia Kummer and Tullia Padovani for assistance in conducting the experiment and Stefan Walter for helpful comments on an earlier version.
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