Although visual search studies have primarily focused on search behavior, concealment behavior is also important in the real world. However, previous studies in this regard are limited in that their findings about search and concealment strategies are restricted to the spatial (two-dimensional) domain. Thus, this study evaluated strategies during three-dimensional and temporal (i.e., spatiotemporal) search and concealment to determine whether participants would indicate where they would hide or find a target in a temporal sequence of items. The items were stacked in an upward (Experiments 1–3) or downward (Experiment 4) direction and three factors were manipulated: scenario (hide vs. seek), partner type (friend vs. foe), and oddball (unique item in the sequence; present vs. absent). Participants in both the hide and seek scenarios frequently selected the oddball for friends but not foes, which suggests that they applied common strategies because the oddball automatically attracts attention and can be readily discovered by friends. Additionally, a principle unique to the spatiotemporal domain was revealed, i.e., when the oddball was absent, participants in both scenarios frequently selected the topmost item of the stacked layer for friends, regardless of temporal order, whereas they selected the first item in the sequence for foes, regardless of the stacked direction. These principles were not affected by visual masking or number of items in the sequence. Taken together, these results suggest that finding and hiding positions in the spatiotemporal domain rely on the presence of salient items and physical accessibility or temporal remoteness, according to partner type.
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We would like to thank Rie Kitade for help with data collection. This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17H02648) to JK and Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17J04401) to MI.
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Because previous studies have only focused on the spatial factors involved in search and concealment, the present study evaluated strategies for finding and hiding in the spatiotemporal domain. We identified a principle unique to the spatiotemporal domain, in which observers selected targets based on physical accessibility in a cooperative situation and on temporal remoteness in an uncooperative situation. This finding indicates that search and concealment strategies dramatically differ depending on the social context. The present study was the first to reveal that different mechanisms underlie search and concealment in the spatiotemporal domain versus the spatial domain.
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Ito, M., Kawahara, J. Search and concealment strategies in the spatiotemporal domain. Atten Percept Psychophys (2020). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-01976-6
- Visual search
- Finding and hiding strategies
- Spatiotemporal domain