Relating the perception of visual ensemble statistics to individual levels of autistic traits
Integrating information across the visual field into an ensemble (e.g., seeing the forest from the trees) is an effective strategy to efficiently process the visual world, and one that is often impaired in autism spectrum disorder. Individual differences in sensory processing predict ensemble encoding, providing a potential mechanism for differing perceptual strategies across individuals, and possibly across diagnostic groups exhibiting atypical sensory processing. Here, we explore whether ensemble encoding is associated with traits associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (N=68) were presented with an ensemble display consisting of circles of varying sizes and colors, and were asked to remember the size of the red and blue circles, while ignoring the green circles. Participants were then cued to a target location after a brief delay, and instructed to report the remembered size of the circle they had previously viewed in that location, as ensemble information commonly biases memory for individual objects toward the probed mean of a set of similar objects. The Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) was completed to measure each individual’s level of autistic traits. We found that an individual’s level of ensemble perception, measured as their bias toward the probed mean, was negatively associated with a higher level of ASD traits. These results suggest that individuals with higher levels of ASD traits are less likely to integrate perceptual information. These findings may shed light on different perceptual processing within the autism spectrum, and provide insight into the relationship between individual differences and ensemble encoding.
KeywordsEnsemble statistics Summary statistics Mean size Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
R.A.S is supported by internal grants from the University of Western Ontario, a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Insight grant (R5502A07), an NSERC Discovery Grant (RGPIN-2017-04656), an Ontario Early Researcher Award, and the John R. Evans Leaders Fund from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (#37497). J.S.C. is supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Grant (216203-13) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Grant (106436) to S.F., an NSERC grant to J.S.C. (435647-13). M.D.B. is supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program and a James S. McDonnell Scholar Award. The authors thank Timothy Brady and George Alvarez at Harvard University for providing their ensemble experiment and analysis procedure.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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