Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 128–149

Target templates: the precision of mental representations affects attentional guidance and decision-making in visual search


DOI: 10.3758/s13414-014-0764-6

Cite this article as:
Hout, M.C. & Goldinger, S.D. Atten Percept Psychophys (2015) 77: 128. doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0764-6


When people look for things in the environment, they use target templates—mental representations of the objects they are attempting to locate—to guide attention and to assess incoming visual input as potential targets. However, unlike laboratory participants, searchers in the real world rarely have perfect knowledge regarding the potential appearance of targets. In seven experiments, we examined how the precision of target templates affects the ability to conduct visual search. Specifically, we degraded template precision in two ways: 1) by contaminating searchers’ templates with inaccurate features, and 2) by introducing extraneous features to the template that were unhelpful. We recorded eye movements to allow inferences regarding the relative extents to which attentional guidance and decision-making are hindered by template imprecision. Our findings support a dual-function theory of the target template and highlight the importance of examining template precision in visual search.


Visual search Eye movements Target templates Attentional guidance Decision making 

Supplementary material

13414_2014_764_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.9 mb)
ESM 1(PDF 1970 kb)

Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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