Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 402–417 | Cite as

Weakness of will, akrasia, and the neuropsychiatry of decision making: An interdisciplinary perspective

  • Annemarie Kalis
  • Andreas Mojzisch
  • T. Sophie Schweizer
  • Stefan Kaiser
Intersections among Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience
  • 856 Downloads

Abstract

This article focuses on both daily forms of weakness of will as discussed in the philosophical debate (usually referred to as akrasia) and psychopathological phenomena as impairments of decision making. We argue that both descriptions of dysfunctional decision making can be organized within a common theoretical framework that divides the decision making process in three different stages: option generation, option selection, and action initiation. We first discuss our theoretical framework (building on existing models of decision-making stages), focusing on option generation as an aspect that has been neglected by previous models. In the main body of this article, we review how both philosophy and neuropsychiatry have provided accounts of dysfunction in each decision-making stage, as well as where these accounts can be integrated. Also, the neural underpinnings of dysfunction in the three different stages are discussed. We conclude by discussing advantages and limitations of our integrative approach.

References

  1. Abraham, A., Windmann, S., McKenna, P., & Güntürkün, O. (2007). Creative thinking in schizophrenia: The role of executive dysfunction and symptom severity. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12, 235–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainslie, G. (2001). Breakdown of will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ainslie, G. (2006). A selectionist model of the ego: Implications for self-control. In N. Sebanz & W. Prinz (Eds.), Disorders of volition (pp. 119–150). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ainslie, G., & Monterosso, J. (2004). A marketplace in the brain? Science, 306, 421–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Andreasen, N. C. (1983). Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  7. Andreasen, N. C. (1987). Creativity and mental illness: Prevalence rates in writers and their first degree relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1288–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aristotle (2002). Nicomachean ethics (S. Broadie, Ed., & C. Rowe, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2000). Attitudinal ambivalence: A test of three key hypotheses. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1421–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aron, A. R., Fletcher, P. C., Bullmore, E. T., Sahakian, B. J., & Robbins, T. W. (2003). Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 115–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aron, A. R., Robbins, T. W., & Poldrack, R. A. (2004). Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 170–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arpaly, N. (2000). On acting rationally against one’s best judgment. Ethics, 110, 488–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baldo, J. V., & Shimamura, A. P. (1998). Letter and category fluency in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychology, 12, 259–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bechara, A. (2005). Decision-making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: A neurocognitive perspective. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1458–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 7–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bechtereva, N. P., Korotkov, A. D., Pakhomov, S. V., Roudas, M. S., Starchenko, M. G., & Medvedev, S. V. (2004). PET study of brain maintenance of verbal creative activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 53, 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benazzi, F. (2007). Testing new diagnostic criteria for hypomania. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 19, 99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benazzi, F., & Akiskal, H. S. (2003). The dual factor structure of selfrated MDQ hypomania: Energized-activity versus irritable-thought racing. Journal of Affective Disorders, 73, 59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Best, M., Williams, J. M., & Coccaro, E. F. (2002). Evidence for a dysfunctional prefrontal circuit in patients with an impulsive aggressive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 8448–8453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhatia, K. P., & Marsden, C. D. (1994). The behavioural and motor consequences of focal lesions of the basal ganglia in man. Brain, 117, 859–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bleuler, E. (1911). Dementia praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien [Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias]. Leipzig: Deuticke.Google Scholar
  22. Brass, M., & Haggard, P. (2007). To do or not to do: The neural signature of self-control. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 9141–9145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bräunig, P., Krüger, S., & Shugar, G. (1998). Prevalence and clinical significance of catatonic symptoms in mania. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 35–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, R. G., & Pluck, G. (2000). Negative symptoms: The pathology of motivation and goal-directed behaviour. Trends in Neurosciences, 23, 412–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell, P. G. (2000). Diagnosing agency. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 7, 107–119.Google Scholar
  26. Cardinal, R. N. (2006). Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Neural Networks, 19, 1277–1301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cavedini, P., Gorini, A., & Bellodi, L. (2006). Understanding obsessivecompulsive disorder: Focus on decision making. Neuropsychology Review, 16, 3–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chamberlain, S. R., Fineberg, N. A., Menzies, L. A., Blackwell, A. D., Bullmore, E. T., Robbins, T. W., & Sahakian, B. J. (2007). Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 335–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chamberlain, S. R., & Sahakian, B. J. (2007). The neuropsychiatry of impulsivity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 255–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chávez-Eakle, R. A., Graff-Guerrero, A., García-Reyna, J.-C., Vaugier, V., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2007). Cerebral blood flow associated with creative performance: A comparative study. NeuroImage, 38, 519–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Christoff, K., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: Evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organization within the human prefrontal cortex. Psychobiology, 28, 168–186.Google Scholar
  32. Cohen, R. A., Kaplan, R. F., Zuffante, P., Moser, D. J., Jenkins, M. A., Salloway, S., & Wilkinson, H. (1999). Alteration of intention and self-initiated action associated with bilateral anterior cingulotomy. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 11, 444–453.Google Scholar
  33. Costafreda, S. G., Fu, C. H. Y., Lee, L., Everitt, B., Brammer, M. J., & David, A. S. (2006). A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: Role of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 799–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cunnington, R., Windischberger, C., Deecke, L., & Moser, E. (2002). The preparation and execution of self-initiated and externallytriggered movement: A study of event-related fMRI. NeuroImage, 15, 373–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Curtis, V. A., Dixon, T. A., Morris, R. G., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J., Williams, S. C. R., et al. (2001). Differential frontal activation in schizophrenia and bipolar illness during verbal fluency. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 111–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon.Google Scholar
  37. Dancy, J. (1993). Moral reasons. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  38. Davidson, D. (2001). How is weakness of the will possible? In D. Davidson (Ed.), Essays on actions and events (2nd ed., pp. 21–42). Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press. (Original work published 1969)Google Scholar
  39. Dietrich, A. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of creativity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 1011–1026.Google Scholar
  40. Ernst, M., & Paulus, M. P. (2005). Neurobiology of decision-making: A selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 597–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Evenden, J. L. (1999). Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology, 146, 348–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  43. Faerden, A., Nesvåg, R., Barrett, E. A., Agartz, I., Finset, A., Friis, S., et al. (2008). Assessing apathy: The use of the Apathy Evaluation Scale in first episode psychosis. European Psychiatry, 23, 33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fink, A., Benedek, M., Grabner, R. H., Staudt, B., & Neubauer, A. C. (2007). Creativity meets neuroscience: Experimental tasks for the neuroscientific study of creative thinking. Methods, 42, 68–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flaherty, A. W. (2005). Frontotemporal and dopaminergic control of idea generation and creative drive. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 493, 147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Franken, I. H. A., van Strien, J. W., Nijs, I., & Muris, P. (2008). Impulsivity is associated with behavioral decision-making deficits. Psychiatry Research, 158, 155–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frankfurt, H. G. (1988). The importance of what we care about: Philisophical essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Fried, I., Katz, A., McCarthy, G., Sass, K. J., Williamson, P., Spencer, S. S., & Spencer, D. D. (1991). Functional organization of human supplementary motor cortex studied by electrical stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 3656–3666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Frith, C. D. (1992). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Hove, U.K.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Ganesan, V., Green, R. D., Hunter, M. D., Wilkinson, I. D., & Spence, S. A. (2005). Expanding the response space in schizophrenia: The relevance of left prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 25, 952–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gibbard, A. (1990). Wise choices, apt feelings: A theory of normative judgment. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Glutting, J. J., Youngstrom, E. A., & Watkins, M. W. (2005). ADHD and college students: Exploratory and confirmatory factor structures with student and parent data. Psychological Assessment, 17, 44–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goel, V., Grafman, J., Tajik, J., Gana, S., & Danto, D. (1997). A study of the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions in a financial planning task. Brain, 120, 1805–1822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goel, V., & Vartanian, O. (2005). Dissociating the roles of right ventral lateral and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex in generation and maintenance of hypotheses in set-shift problems. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 1170–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., Fleischmann, R. L., Hill, C. L., et al. (1989). The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: I. Development, use, and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1006–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grant, J. E., & Potenza, M. N. (2006). Compulsive aspects of impulse-control disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29, 539–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guilford, J. P., Christensen, P. R., Merrifield, P. R., & Wilson, R. C. (1978). Alternate uses: Manual of instructions and interpretation. Orange, CA: Sheridan Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  58. Hajcak, G., Huppert, J. D., Simons, R. F., & Foa, E. B. (2004). Psychometric properties of the OCI-R in a college sample. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 42, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hare, R. M. (1963). Backsliding. In Freedom and reason (pp. 67–86). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Heckhausen, H. (1991). Motivation and action. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  61. Heckhausen, H., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational versus volitional states of mind. Motivation & Emotion, 11, 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hollis, M. (1994). The philosophy of social science: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Hooker, B., & Streumer, S. (2004). Procedural and substantive practical rationality. In A. R. Mele & P. Rawling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of rationality (pp. 57–74). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Huettel, S. A., Stowe, C. J., Gordon, E. M., Warner, B. T., & Platt, M. L. (2006). Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and ambiguity. Neuron, 49, 765–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jamison, K. R. (1995). Manic-depressive illness and creativity. Scientific American, 272, 62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaiser, S., Roth, A., Rentrop, M., Friederich, H.-C., Bender, S., & Weisbrod, M. (2008). Intra-individual reaction time variability in schizophrenia, depression and borderline personality disorder. Brain & Cognition, 66, 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kennett, J., & Smith, M. (1994). Philosophy and commonsense: The case of weakness of will. In M. Michael & J. O’Leary-Hawthorne (Eds.), Philosophy in mind: The place of philosophy in the study of mind (pp. 141–157). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  68. Klein, G., & Wolf, S. (1998). The role of leverage points in option generation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics C, 28, 157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knutson, B., & Peterson, R. (2005). Neurally reconstructing expected utility. Games & Economic Behavior, 52, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Konishi, S., Nakajima, K., Uchida, I., Sekihara, K., & Miyashita, Y. (1998). No-go dominant brain activity in human inferior prefrontal cortex revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1209–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kraepelin, E. (1919). Dementia praecox and paraphrenia. New York: Krieger.Google Scholar
  72. Kropotov, J. D., & Etlinger, S. C. (1999). Selection of actions in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: Review and model. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 31, 197–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kwapil, T. R., Raulin, M. L., & Midthun, J. C. (2000). A ten-year longitudinal study of intense ambivalence as a predictor of risk for psychopathology. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 188, 402–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lau, H. C., Rogers, R. D., Haggard, P., & Passingham, R. E. (2004). Attention to intention. Science, 303, 1208–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lawrence, N. S., Wooderson, S., Mataix-Cols, D., David, R., Speckens, A., & Phillips, M. L. (2006). Decision-making and set shifting impairments are associated with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology, 20, 409–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lejoyeux, M., Feuché, N., Loi, S., Solomon, J., & Adès, J. (1999). Study of impulse-control disorders among alcohol-dependent patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 302–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Levy, R., & Dubois, B. (2006). Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 916–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Loring, D. W., Hannay, H. J., & Fischer, J. S. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Li, C. R., & Chen, S.-H. (2007). Obsessive-compulsiveness and impulsivity in a nonclinical population of adolescent males and females. Psychiatry Research, 149, 129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., & Pearl, D. K. (1983). Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential): The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain, 106, 623–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Logan, G. D., Schachar, R., & Tannock, R. (1997). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychological Science, 8, 60–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Macmillan, M. (2000). An odd kind of fame: Stories of Phineas Gage. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  83. Marin, R. S. (1996). Apathy: Concept, syndrome, neural mechanisms, and treatment. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 1, 304–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Marin, R. S., Biedrzycki, R. C., & Firinciogullari, S. (1991). Reliability and validity of the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Psychiatry Research, 38, 143–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McClure, S. M., Laibson, D. I., Loewenstein, G., & Cohen, J. D (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306, 503–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McIntyre, A. (1990). Is akratic action always irrational? In O. Flanagan & A. A. O. Rorty (Eds.), Identity, character, and morality: Essays in moral psychology (pp. 379–400). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  87. Meehl, P. E. (1962). Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mega, M. S., & Cummings, J. L. (1994). Frontal-subcortical circuits and neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 6, 358–370.Google Scholar
  89. Mele, A. R. (1987). Irrationality: An essay on akrasia, self-deception, and self-control. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mele, A. R. (2002). Akratics and addicts. American Philosophical Quarterly, 39, 153–167.Google Scholar
  91. Metzinger, T. (2006). Conscious volition and mental representation: Toward a more fine-grained analysis. In N. Sebanz & W. Prinz (Eds.), Disorders of volition (pp. 19–48). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  92. Moeller, F. G., Barratt, E. S., Dougherty, D. M., Schmitz, J. M., & Swann, A. C. (2001). Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1783–1793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mostofsky, S. H., & Simmonds, D. J. (2008). Response inhibition and response selection: Two sides of the same coin. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 751–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nachev, P. (2006). Cognition and medial frontal cortex in health and disease. Current Opinion in Neurology, 19, 586–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nathan, P. E., & Langenbucher, J. W. (1999). Psychopathology: description and classification. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 79–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nordgren, L. F., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2006). Ambivalence, discomfort, and motivated information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 252–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (1997). Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 35, 667–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Passingham, R. E. (1995). The frontal lobes and voluntary action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Perkins, D. N. (2002). The engine of folly. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 64–85). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Pettit, P., & Smith, M. (1993). Practical unreason. Mind, 102, 53–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Raab, M., & Johnson, J. G. (2007). Expertise-based differences in search and option-generation strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13, 158–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rahman, S., Sahakian, B. J., Cardinal, R. N., Rogers, R. D., & Robbins, T. W. (2001). Decision-making and neuropsychiatry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 271–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rao, V., Spiro, J. R., Schretlen, D. J., & Cascella, N. G. (2007). Apathy syndrome after traumatic brain injury compared with deficits in schizophrenia. Psychosomatics, 48, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Raz, J. (2005). The myth of instrumental rationality. Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy, 1, 2–28.Google Scholar
  107. Rentrop, M., Backenstrass, M., Jaentsch, B., Kaiser, S., Roth, A., Unger, J., et al. (2007). Response inhibition in borderline personality disorder: Performance in a go/no-go task. Psychopathology, 41, 50–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Reuter, B., Jäger, M., Bottlender, R., & Kathmann, N. (2007). Impaired action control in schizophrenia: The role of volitional saccade initiation. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1840–1848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Revheim, N., Schechter, I., Kim, D., Silipo, G., Allingham, B., Butler, P., & Javitt, D. C. (2006). Neurocognitive and symptom correlates of daily problem-solving skills in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 83, 237–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reynolds, B. (2006). A review of delay-discounting research with humans: Relations to drug use and gambling. Behavioural Pharmacology, 17, 651–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rogers, R. D., Everitt, B. J., Baldacchino, A., Blackshaw, A. J., Swainson, R., Wynne, K., et al. (1999). Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: Evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 322–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rorty, A. O. (1985). Self-deception, akrasia and irrationality. In J. Elster (Ed.), The multiple self (pp. 115–131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published in 1980)Google Scholar
  113. Rorty, A. O. (1988). Where does the akratic break take place? In Mind in action: Essays in the philosophy of mind (pp. 229–270). Boston: Beacon Press. (Original work published in 1980)Google Scholar
  114. Roth, R. M., Koven, N. S., Pendergrass, J. C., Flashman, L. A., McAllister, T. W., & Saykin, A. J. (2008). Apathy and the processing of novelty in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 98, 232–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sanfey, A. G., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2006). Neuroeconomics: Cross-currents in research on decisionmaking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schneider, W. X. (2006). Action control and its failure in clinical depression. In N. Sebanz & W. Prinz (Eds.), Disorders of volition (pp. 275–306). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  117. Schweizer, T. S. (2006). The psychology of novelty-seeking, creativity and innovation: Neurocognitive aspects within a work-psychological perspective. Creativity & Innovation Management, 15, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Searle, J. R. (2001). Weakness of will. In Rationality in action (pp. 219–237). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  119. Seitz, R. J., Stephan, K. M., & Binkofski, F. (2000). Control of action as mediated by the human frontal lobe. Experimental Brain Research, 133, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Semkovska, M., Stip, E., Godbout, L., Paquet, F., & Bédard, M. A. (2002). Behavioral disorganization in schizophrenia during a daily activity: The kitchen behavioral scoring scale. Brain & Cognition, 48, 546–553.Google Scholar
  121. Simmonds, D. J., Pekar, J. J., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2008). Metabanalysis of go/no-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent. Neuropsychologia, 46, 224–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Simon, H. A. (1973). The structure of ill-structured problems. Artificial Intelligence, 4, 181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Smith, M. (2003). Rational capacities, or: How to distinguish recklessness, weakness, and compulsion. In S. Stroud & C. Tappolet (Eds.), Weakness of will and practical irrationality (pp. 17–38). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sobin, C., Mayer, L., & Endicott, J. (1998). The Motor Agitation and Retardation Scale: A scale for the assessment of motor abnormalities in depressed patients. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 10, 85–92.Google Scholar
  125. Sockeel, P., Dujardin, K., Devos, D., Denève, C., Destée, A., & Defebvre, L. (2006). The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), a new instrument for detecting and quantifying apathy: Validation in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 77, 579–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sorensen, R. (2004). Paradoxes of rationality. In A. R. Mele & P. Rawling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of rationality (pp. 257–278). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Spence, S. A., & Parry, C. (2006). In N. Sebanz & W. Prinz (Eds.), Disorders of volition (pp. 207–232). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  128. Spencer, T. J., Biederman, J., & Mick, E. (2007). Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: Diagnosis, life span, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 631–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stocker, M. (1979). Desiring the bad: An essay in moral psychology. Journal of Philosophy, 76, 738–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stroud, S., & Tappolet, C. (2003). Introduction. In S. Stroud & C. Tappolet (Eds.), Weakness of will and practical irrationality (pp. 1–16). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Takizawa, R., Kasai, K., Kawakubo, Y., Marumo, K., Kawasaki, S., Yamasue, H., & Fukuda, M. (2008). Reduced frontopolar activation during verbal fluency task in schizophrenia: A multichannel nearinfrared spectroscopy study. Schizophrenia Research, 99, 250–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tenenbaum, S. (2003). Accidie, evaluation, and motivation. In S. Stroud & C. Tappolet (Eds.), Weakness of will and practical irrationality (pp. 147–171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tobler, P. N., O’Doherty, J. P., Dolan, R. J., & Schultz, W. (2007). Reward value coding distinct from risk attitude-related uncertainty coding in human reward systems. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 1621–1632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tom, S. M., Fox, C. R., Trepel, C., & Poldrack, R. A. (2007). The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk. Science, 315, 515–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Torrance, E. P. (1990). Torrance tests of creative thinking. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.Google Scholar
  136. Vartanian, O., & Goel, V. (2005). Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 27, 927–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Walsh, D. (1975). “Akrasia” reconsidered. Ethics, 85, 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Watson, G. (1977). Skepticism about weakness of will. Philosophical Review, 86, 316–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Widiger, T. A., & Sankis, L. M. (2000). Adult psychopathology: Issues and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 377–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wittmann, M., & Paulus, M. P. (2008). Decision making, impulsivity and time perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yacubian, J., Gläscher, J., Schroeder, K., Sommer, T., Braus, D. F., & Büchel, C. (2006). Dissociable systems for gain- and loss-related value predictions and errors of prediction in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 9530–9537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zermatten, A., Van der Linden, M., d’Acremont, M., Jermann, F., & Bechara, A. (2005). Impulsivity and decision-making. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 193, 647–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annemarie Kalis
    • 1
  • Andreas Mojzisch
    • 2
  • T. Sophie Schweizer
    • 3
  • Stefan Kaiser
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Georg-August-Universität GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Vrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Ruprecht-Karls-Universität HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations