Advertisement

Understanding vulnerability for depression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective: A reappraisal of attentional factors and a new conceptual framework

  • Rudi De Raedt
  • Ernst H. W. Koster
Article

Abstract

We propose a framework to understand increases in vulnerability for depression after recurrent episodes that links attention processes and schema activation to negative mood states, by integrating cognitive and neurobiological findings. Depression is characterized by a mood-congruent attentional bias at later stages of information processing. The basic idea of our framework is that decreased activity in prefrontal areas, mediated by the serotonin metabolism which the HPA axis controls, is associated with an impaired attenuation of subcortical regions, resulting in prolonged activation of the amygdala in response to stressors in the environment. Reduced prefrontal control in interaction with depressogenic schemas leads to impaired ability to exert attentional inhibitory control over negative elaborative processes such as rumination, leading in turn to sustained negative affect. These elaborative processes are triggered by the activation of negative schemas after confrontation with stressors. In our framework, attentional impairments are postulated as a crucial process in explaining the increasing vulnerability after depressive episodes, linking cognitive and biological vulnerability factors. We review the empirical data on the biological factors associated with the attentional impairments and detail how they are associated with rumination and mood regulation. The aim of our framework is to stimulate translational research.

Keywords

Attentional Bias Attentional Control Negative Information Abnormal Psychology Cognitive Reactivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Algom, D., Chajut, E., & Lev, S. (2004). A rational look at the emotional Stroop phenomenon: A generic slowdown, not a Stroop effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 323–338.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Avery, D. H., Holtzheimer, P. E., 3rd, Fawaz, W., Russo, J., Neumaier, J., Dunner, D. L., et al. (2006). A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baeken, C., De Raedt, R., Bossuyt, A., Van Hove, C., Mertens, J., Dobbeleir, A., et al. (2010). The neurobiological impact of HF-rTMS treatment on post-synaptic serotonin type 2A receptor binding in medication-resistant unipolar depressed patients of the melancholic subtype: A 123I-5-I-R91150 SPECT imaging study. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
  6. Barden, N. (2004). Implication of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the physiopathology of depression. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 29, 185–193.Google Scholar
  7. Beauregard, M., Lévesque, J., & Bourgouin, P. (2001). Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 6993–7000.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  9. Beevers, C. G., & Carver, C. S. (2003). Attentional bias and mood persistence as prospective predictors of dysphoria. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 27, 619–637.Google Scholar
  10. Beevers, C. G., Wells, T. T., Ellis, A. J., & McGeary, J. E. (2009). Associations of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region ( 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism with biased attention for emotional stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 670–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beevers, C. G., Wells, T. T., & Miller, I. W. (2007). Predicting response to depression treatment: The role of negative cognition. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 75, 422–431.Google Scholar
  12. Bethea, C. L., Streicher, J. M., Coleman, K., Pau, F. K. Y., Moessner, R., & Cameron, J. L. (2004). Anxious behavior and fenfluramine- induced prolactin secretion in young rhesus macaques with different alleles of the serotonin reuptake transporter polymorphism (5HTTLPR). Behavior Genetics, 34, 295–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhagwagar, Z., Cowen, P. J., Goodwin, G. [M.], & Harmer, C. J. (2004). Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 166–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhagwagar, Z., Hafizi, S., & Cowen, P. J. (2003). Increase in concentration of waking salivary cortisol in recovered patients with depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1890–1891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhagwagar, Z., Rabiner, E. A., Sargent, P. A., Grasby, P. M., & Cowen, P. J. (2004). Persistent reduction in brain serotonin1A receptor binding in recovered depressed men measured by positron emission tomography with (11C)WAY-100635. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Booij, L., & Van der Does, A. J. W. (2007). Cognitive and serotonergic vulnerability to depression: Convergent findings. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bortolomasi, M., Minelli, A., Fuggetta, G., Perini, M., Comencini, S., Fiaschi, A., & Manganotti, P. (2007). Long-lasting effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depressed patients. Psychiatry Research, 150, 181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Lee, S. C. (1997). Attentional biases for negative information in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 35, 911–927.Google Scholar
  20. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., Millar, N., Bonham-Carter, C., Fergusson, E., Jenkins, J., & Parr, M. (1997). Attentional biases for emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion, 11, 25–42.Google Scholar
  21. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Williams, R. (1995). Implicit and explicit memory for emotion-congruent information in clinical depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 33, 755–770.Google Scholar
  22. Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., & Harmer, C. J. (2010). The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 8–20.Google Scholar
  23. Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 215–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butler, A. C., Hokanson, J. E., & Flynn, H. A. (1994). A comparison of self-esteem lability and low trait self-esteem as vulnerability factors for depression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 166–177.Google Scholar
  25. Cahn, B. R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 180–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carver, C. S., Johnson, S. L., & Joormann, J. (2008). Serotonergic function, two-mode models of self-regulation, and vulnerability to depression: What depression has in common with impulsive aggression. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 912–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Caseras, X., Garner, M., Bradley, B. P., & Mogg, K. (2007). Biases in visual orienting to negative and positive scenes in dysphoria: An eye movement study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cave, K. R., & Batty, M. J. (2006). From searching for features to searching for threat: Drawing the boundary between preattentive and attentive vision. Visual Cognition, 14, 629–646.Google Scholar
  30. Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Cools, R., Roberts, A. C., & Robbins, T. W. (2007). Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dandeneau, S. D., & Baldwin, M. W. (2004). The inhibition of socially rejecting information among people with high versus low selfesteem: The role of attentional bias and the effects of bias reduction training. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 23, 584–602.Google Scholar
  33. Dandeneau, S. D., Baldwin, M. W., Baccus, J. R., Sakellaropoulo, M., & Pruessner, J. C. (2007). Cutting stress off at the pass: Reducing vigilance and responsiveness to social threat by manipulating attention. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93, 651–666.Google Scholar
  34. Dannlowski, U., Ohrmann, P., Bauer, J., Deckert, J., Hohoff, C., Kugel, H., et al. (2008). 5-HTTLPR biases amygdala activity in response to masked facial expressions in major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 418–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davidson, R. J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J. B., & Putnam, K. M. (2002). Depression: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 545–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Denny, E. B., & Hunt, R. R. (1992). Affective valence and memory in depression: Dissociation of recall and fragment recognition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 175–180.Google Scholar
  37. Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (2002). Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 225–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De Ruiter, C., & Brosschot, J. F. (1994). The emotional Stroop interference effect in anxiety: Attentional bias or cognitive avoidance? Behaviour Research & Therapy, 32, 315–319.Google Scholar
  39. Donaldson, C., Lam, D., & Mathews, A. (2007). Attention and rumination in major depression. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 45, 2664–2678.Google Scholar
  40. Eizenman, M., Yu, L. H., Grupp, L., Eizenman, E., Ellenbogen, M., Gemar, M., & Levitan, R. D. (2003). A naturalistic visual scanning approach to assess selective attention in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 118, 117–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ellenbogen, M. A., Schwartzman, A. E., Stewart, J., & Walker, C.-D. (2002). Stress and selective attention: The interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing. Psychophysiology, 39, 723–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellis, H. C., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1988). Resource allocation model of the effects of depressed mood states on memory. In K. Fiedler & J. Forgas (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and social behaviour (pp. 25–43). Toronto: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  43. Fales, C. L., Barch, D. M., Rundle, M. M., Mintun, M. A., Snyder, A. Z., Cohen, J. D., et al. (2008). Altered emotional interference processing in affective and cognitive-control brain circuitry in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 377–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Firk, C., & Markus, C. R. (2007). Review: Serotonin by stress interaction: A susceptibility factor for the development of depression? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21, 538–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fox, E., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., & Dutton, K. (2001). Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 681–700.Google Scholar
  46. Gardner, K. L., Thrivikraman, K. V., Lightman, S. L., Plotsky, P. M., & Lowry, C. A. (2005). Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: Focus on serotonergic systems. Neuroscience, 136, 181–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gitlin, M. J. (2009). Pharmacotherapy and other somatic treatments for depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 554–585). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Goeleven, E., De Raedt, R., Baert, S., & Koster, E. H. W. (2006). Deficient inhibition of emotional information in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93, 149–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: High vs low CRH/NE states. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 254–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goodwin, R. D., Jacobi, F., Bittner, A., & Wittchen, H. (2006). Epidemiology of mood disorders. In D. J. Stein, D. J. Kupfer, & A. F. Schatzberg (Eds.), Text book of mood disorders (pp. 33–54). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Gotlib, I. H., Joormann, J., Minor, K. L., & Hallmayer, J. (2008). HPA axis reactivity: A mechanism underlying the associations among 5- HTTLPR, stress, and depression. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 847–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gotlib, I. H., Kasch, K. L., Traill, S. K., Joormann, J., Arnow, B. A., & Johnson, S. L. (2004). Coherence and specificity of informationprocessing biases in depression and social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 386–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gotlib, I. H., Krasnoperova, E., Yue, D. N., & Joormann, J. (2004). Attentional bias for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 127–135.Google Scholar
  54. Gotlib, I. H., McLachlan, A. L., & Katz, A. N. (1988). Biases in visual attention in depressed and nondepressed individuals. Cognition & Emotion, 2, 185–200.Google Scholar
  55. Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. L. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression: Examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 28, 309–345.Google Scholar
  56. Hansen, C. H., & Hansen, R. D. (1988). Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority effect. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54, 917–924.Google Scholar
  57. Hariri, A. R., & Holmes, A. (2006). The serotonin transporter and the genetics of affect regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 182–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Harmer, C. J., Mackay, C. E., Reid, C. B., Cowen, P. J., & Goodwin, G. M. (2006). Antidepressant drug treatment modifies the neural processing of nonconscious threat cues. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 816–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Harmer, C. J., Shelley, N. C., Cowen, P. J., & Goodwin, G. M. (2004). Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1256–1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1023–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Herbert, J., Goodyer, I. M., Grossman, A. B., Hastings, M. H., de Kloet, E. R., Lightman, S. L., et al. (2006). Do corticosteroids damage the brain? Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 18, 393–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hertel, P. T., & Rude, S. S. (1991). Depressive deficits in memory: Focusing attention improves subsequent recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 301–309.Google Scholar
  63. Hill, A. B., & Dutton, F. (1989). Depression and selective attention to self-esteem threatening words. Personality & Individual Differences, 10, 915–917.Google Scholar
  64. Hollon, S. D., & Dimidjian, S. (2009). Cognitive and behavioral treatment of depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 586–603). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  65. Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2008). Response conflict and frontocingulate dysfunction in unmedicated participants with major depression. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2904–2913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Holsboer, F. (1995). Neuroendocrinology of mood disorders. In F. E. Bloom & D. J. Kupfer (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress (pp. 957–969). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  67. Hooley, J. M., Gruber, S. A., Parker, H. A., Guillaumot, J., Rogowska, J., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. A. (2009). Cortico-limbic response to personally challenging emotional stimuli after complete recovery from depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 171, 106–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hopfinger, J. B., Buonocore, M. H., & Mangun, G. R. (2000) The neural mechanisms of top-down attentional control. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 284–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ingram, R. E., Miranda, J., & Segal, Z. V. (1998). Cognitive vulnerability to depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  70. Ingram, R. E., & Siegle, G. J. (2009). Methodological issues in the study of depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 69–92). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., &, Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.Google Scholar
  72. Johnstone, T., Van Reekum, C. M., Urry, H. L., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Failure to regulate: Counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8877–8884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Joormann, J. (2004). Attentional bias in dysphoria: The role of inhibitory processes. Cognition & Emotion, 18, 125–147.Google Scholar
  74. Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Selective attention to emotional faces following recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 80–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 182–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Joormann, J., Talbot, L., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Biased processing of emotional information in girls at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 135–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Joormann, J., Yoon, K. L., & Zetsche, U. (2007). Cognitive inhibition in depression. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 12, 128–139.Google Scholar
  78. Karparova, S. P., Kersting, A., & Suslow, T. (2007). Deployment of attention in clinical depression during symptom remission. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Keck, M. E., & Holsboer, F. (2001). Hyperactivity of CRH neuronal circuits as a target for therapeutic interventions in affective disorders. Peptides, 22, 835–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kellough, J., Beevers, C. G., Ellis, A., & Wells, T. T. (2008). Time course of selective attention in depressed young adults: An eye tracking study. Behavior Research & Therapy, 11, 1238–1243.Google Scholar
  81. Kessing, L. V., Hansen, M. G., Andersen, P. K., & Angst, J. (2004). The predictive effect of episodes on the risk of recurrence in depressive and bipolar disorders—A life-long perspective. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 339–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kingsley, R. E. (2000). Concise text of neuroscience (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  83. Koster, E. H. W., De Raedt, R., Goeleven, E., Franck, E., & Crombez, G. (2005). Mood-congruent attentional bias in dysphoria: Maintained attention to and impaired disengagement from negative information. Emotion, 5, 446–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Koster, E. H. W., De Raedt, R., Leyman, L., & De Lissnyder, E. (2010). Mood-congruent attention and memory bias in dysphoria: Exploring the coherence among information-processing biases. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 48, 219–225.Google Scholar
  85. Koster, E. H. W., De Raedt, R., Tibboel, H., De Jong, P. J., & Verschuere, B. (2009). Negative information enhances the attentional blink in dysphoria. Depression & Anxiety, 26, E16-E22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lanfumey, L., Mongeau, R., Cohen-Salmon, C., & Hamon, M. (2008). Corticosteroid-serotonin interactions in the neurobiological mechanisms of stress-related disorders. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1174–1184.Google Scholar
  87. Levinson, D. F. (2009). Genetics of major depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 165–186). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  88. Leyman, L., De Raedt, R., Schacht, R., & Koster, E. H. W. (2007). Attentional biases for angry faces in unipolar depression. Psychological Medicine, 37, 393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Leyman, L., De Raedt, R., Vaeyens, R., & Phillipaerts, R. (in press). Attention for emotional facial expressions in dysphoria: An eye-movement registration study. Cognition & Emotion.Google Scholar
  90. Leyman, L., De Raedt, R., Vanderhasselt, M. A., & Baeken, C. (2009). Influence of HF-rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the inhibition of emotional information in healthy volunteers. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1019–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Leyman, L., De Raedt, R., Vanderhasselt, M. A., & Baeken, C. (in press). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the attentional processing of emotional information in major depression: A pilot study. Psychiatry Research.Google Scholar
  92. Leyton, M., Young, S. N., Blier, P., Ellenbogen, M. A., Palmour, R. M., Ghadirian, A. M., & Benkelfat, C. (1997). The effect of tryptophan depletion on mood in medication-free former patients with major affective disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 16, 294–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. López, J. F., Liberzon, I., Vázquez, D. M., Young, E. A., & Watson, S. J. (1999). Serotonin 1A receptor messenger RNA regulation in the hippocampus after acute stress. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 934–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. MacDonald, A. W., III, Cohen, J. D., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science, 288, 1835–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. MacLeod, C., & Hagan, R. (1992). Individual differences in the selective processing of threatening information and emotional responses to a stressful life event. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 30, 151–161.Google Scholar
  96. MacLeod, C., Koster, E. H. W., & Fox, E. (2009). Whither cognitive bias modification research: A commentary on the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. MacLeod, C., Rutherford, E. M., Campbell, L., Ebsworthy, G., & Holker, L. (2002). Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: Assessing the causal basis of their association through the experimental manipulation of attentional bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 107–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mann, J. J., Brent, D. A., & Arango, V. (2001). The neurobiology and genetics of suicide and attempted suicide: A focus on the serotonergic system. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24, 467–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mathews, A., Ridgeway, V., & Williamson, D. A. (1996). Evidence for attention to threatening stimuli in depression. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 34, 695–705.Google Scholar
  101. Matthews, G. R., & Antes, J. R. (1992). Visual attention and depression: Cognitive biases in the eye fixation of the dysphoric and nondepressed. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 16, 359–371.Google Scholar
  102. Mayberg, H. S. (1997). Limbic-cortical dysregulation: A proposed model of depression. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 9, 471–481.Google Scholar
  103. Mayberg, H. S. (2002). Mapping mood: An evolving emphasis on frontal- limbic interactions. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 376–391). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Mayberg, H. S. (2003). Positron emission tomography imaging in depression: A neural systems perspective. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 13, 805–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. McCabe, S. B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1995). Selective attention and clinical depression: Performance on a deployment-of-attention task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 241–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. McCabe, S. B., Gotlib, I. H., & Martin, R. (2000). Cognitive vulnerability for depression: Deployment of attention as a function of history of depression and current mood state. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 24, 427–444.Google Scholar
  107. McCabe, S. B., & Toman, P. E. (2000). Stimulus exposure duration in a deployment-of-attention task: Effects on dysphoric, recently dysphoric and nondysphoric individuals. Cognition & Emotion, 14, 125–142.Google Scholar
  108. McEwen, B. S. (2000). Allostasis and allostatic load: Implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, 108–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Merens, W., Van der Does, A. J. W., & Spinhoven, P. (2007). The effects of serotonin manipulations on emotional information processing and mood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 103, 43–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mizoguchi, K., Shoji, H., Ikeda, R., Tanaka, Y., & Tabira, T. (2008). Persistent depressive state after chronic stress in rats is accompanied by HPA axis dysregulation and reduced prefrontal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 91, 170–175.Google Scholar
  111. Mizoguchi, K., Yuzurihara, M., Ishige, A., Sasaki, H., Chui, D.-H., & Tabira, T. (2001). Chronic stress differentially regulates glucocorticoid negative feedback response in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 443–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mizoguchi, K., Yuzurihara, M., Ishige, A., Sasaki, H., & Tabira, T. (2002). Chronic stress impairs rotarod performance in rats: Implications for depressive state. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behaviour, 71, 79–84.Google Scholar
  113. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2005). Attentional bias in generalized anxiety disorder versus depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 29, 29–45.Google Scholar
  114. Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Williams, R. (1995). Attentional bias in anxiety and depression: The role of awareness. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 17–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mogg, K., Millar, N., & Bradley, B. P. (2000). Biases in eye movements to threatening facial expressions in generalized anxiety disorder and depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 695–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Monroe, S. M., & Harkness, K. L. (2005). Life stress, the “kindling” hypothesis, and the recurrence of depression: Considerations from a life stress perspective. Psychological Review, 112, 417–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Williams, A. D., Lang, T., Yap, C., & Hoffmeister, K. (2008). An investigation of the relationship between cognitive reactivity and rumination. Behavior Therapy, 39, 65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Murphy, F. C., Sahakian, B. J., Rubinsztein, J. S., Michael, A., Rogers, R. D., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1999). Emotional bias and inhibitory control processes in mania and depression. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1307–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Nolen-Hoeksema, N. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Nolen-Hoeksema, N. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Nolen-Hoeksema, N., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1215–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Cognitive emotion regulation: Insights from social cognitive and affective neuroscience. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 153–158.Google Scholar
  124. O’Toole, S. M., Sekula, L. K., & Rubin, R. T. (1997). Pituitaryadrenal cortical axis measures as predictors of sustained remission in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Pariante, C. M., & Lightman, S. (2008). The HPA axis in major depression: Classical theories and new developments. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 464–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Phan, K. L., Wager, T. D., Taylor, S. F., & Liberzon, I. (2004). Functional neuroimaging studies of human emotions. Central Nervous System Spectrums, 9, 258–266.Google Scholar
  127. Phillips, M. L., Drevets, W. C., Rauch, S. L., & Lane, R. (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implication for major psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 515–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Posner, M. I. (1980). Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 3–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Posner, M. I., & Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of visual attention. In H. Bouma & D. G. Bouwhuis (Eds.), Attention and performance X: Control of language processes (pp. 531–556). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  130. Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 28, 433–455.Google Scholar
  131. Ray, R. D., Oschner, K. N., Cooper, J. C., Robertson, E. R., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Gross, J. J. (2005). Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 156–168.Google Scholar
  132. Rinck, M., & Becker, E. S. (2005). A comparison of attentional biases and memory biases in women with social phobia and major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 62–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Risch, N., Herrell, R., Lehner, T., Liang, K.-Y., Eaves, L., Hoh, J., et al. (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene ( 5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression: A metaanalysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2462–2471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Roiser, J. P., Levy, J., Fromm, S., Wang, H. Y., Hasler, G., Sahakian, B. J., & Drevets, W. C. (2008). The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on the neural correlates of emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 1992–2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rokke, P. D., Arnell, K. M., Koch, M. D., & Andrews, J. T. (2002). Dual task attention deficits in dysphoric mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 370–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ruhé, H. G., Mason, N. S., & Schene, A. H. (2007). Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: A meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 331–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sapolsky, R. M. (1996). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science, 273, 749–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Scher, C. D., Ingram, R. E., & Segal, Z. V. (2005). Cognitive reactivity and vulnerability: Empirical evaluation of construct activation and cognitive diatheses in unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 487–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Segal, Z. V., Gemar, M. C., & Williams, S. (1999). Differential cognitive response to a mood challenge following successful cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Seminowicz, D. A., Mayberg, H. S., McIntosh, A. R., Goldapple, K., Kennedy, S., Segal, Z., & Rafi-Tari, S. (2004). Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling metanalysis. Neuro-Image, 22, 409–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sergerie, K., Chochol, C., & Armony, J. L. (2008). The role of the amygdala in emotional processing: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 811–830.Google Scholar
  142. Shane, M. S., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). An evaluation of early and late stage attentional processing of positive and negative information in dysphoria. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 789–815.Google Scholar
  143. Sheppard, L. C., & Teasdale, J. D. (2000). Dysfunctional thinking in major depressive disorder: A deficit in metacognitive monitoring? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 768–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sheppard, L. C., & Teasdale, J. D. (2004). How does dysfunctional thinking decrease during recovery from major depression? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 64–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Solomon, D. A., Keller, M. B., Leon, A. C., Mueller, T. I., Lavori, P. W., Shea, M. T., et al. (2000). Multiple recurrences of major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 229–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Suslow, T., Dannlowski, U., Lalee-Mentzel, J., Donges, U.-S., Arolt, V., & Kersting, A. (2004). Spatial processing of facial emotion in patients with unipolar depression: A longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Suslow, T., Junghanns, K., & Arolt, V. (2001). Detection of facial expressions of emotions in depression. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 92, 857–868.Google Scholar
  148. Taylor, J. G., & Fragopanagos, N. F. (2005). The interaction of attention and emotion. Neural Networks, 18, 353–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition & Emotion, 2, 247–274.Google Scholar
  150. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (1995). How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? An information processing analysis. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 33, 25–39.Google Scholar
  151. Thase, M. E. (2009). Neurobiological aspects of depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 187–217). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  152. Titchener, E. B. (1908). Lectures on the elementary psychology of feeling and attention. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  153. Treisman, A., & Souther, J. (1985). Search asymmetry: A diagnostic for preattentive processing of separable features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 285–310.Google Scholar
  154. Uher, R., & McGuffin, P. (2008). The moderation by the serotonin transporter gene of environmental adversity in the aetiology of mental illness: Review and methodological analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 131–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Vanderhasselt, M. A., & De Raedt, R. (2009). Impairments in cognitive control persist during remission from depression and are related to the number of past episodes: An event related potentials study. Biological Psychology, 81, 169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Vanderhasselt, M. A., De Raedt, R., Leyman, L., & Baeken, C. (2009). Acute effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on attentional control are related to antidepressant outcomes. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 34, 119–126.Google Scholar
  157. van Praag, H. M., de Kloet, R., & van Os, J. (2004). Stress, the brain and depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  158. Wager, T. D., Davidson, M. L., Hughes, B. L., Lindquist, M. A., & Ochsner, K. N. (2008). Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron, 59, 1037–1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wells, T. T., & Beevers, C. G. (in press). Attention training reduces depressive symptoms. Cognition & Emotion.Google Scholar
  160. Westra, H. A., & Kuiper, N. A. (1997). Cognitive content specificity in selective attention across four domains of maladjustment. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 35, 349–365.Google Scholar
  161. Williams, J. M. G., Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1996). The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 3–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Williams, J. M. G., Watts, F. N., MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1997). Cognitive psychology and emotional disorders (2nd ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.Google Scholar
  163. Yatham, L. N., Liddle, P. F., Shiah, I.-S., Lam, R. W., Adam, M. J., Zis, A. P., & Ruth, T. J. (2001). Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion on brain 5-HT2 receptors: A PET study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 448–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Yücel, M., Wood, S. J., Fornito, A., Riffkin, J., Velakoulis, D., & Pantelis, C. (2003). Anterior cingulate dysfunction: Implications for psychiatric disorders? Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 28, 350–354.Google Scholar
  165. Zald, D. H. (2003). The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Research Reviews, 41, 88–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Clinical and Health PsychologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations