Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 987–991 | Cite as

Leipzig Affective Norms for German: A reliability study

  • Philipp KanskeEmail author
  • Sonja A. Kotz


To facilitate investigations of verbal emotional processing, we introduce the Leipzig Affective Norms for German (LANG), a list of 1,000 German nouns that have been rated for emotional valence, arousal, and concreteness. A critical factor regarding the quality of normative word data is their reliability. We therefore acquired ratings from a sample that was tested twice, with an interval of 2 years, to calculate test—retest reliability. Furthermore, we recruited a second sample to test reliability across independent samples. The results show (1) the typical quadratic relation of valence and arousal, replicating previous data, (2) very high test—retest reliability (>.95), and (3) high correlations between the two samples (>.85). Because the range of ratings was also very high, we provide a comprehensive set of words with reliable affective norms, which makes it possible to select highly controlled subsamples varying in emotional status. The database is available as a supplement for this article at


Anorexia Nervosa Lexical Decision Behavior Research Method Word Stimulus Rapid Serial Visual Presentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material (77 kb)
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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain SciencesLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Department of Cognitive and Clinical NeuroscienceCentral Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany

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