Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 991–1008 | Cite as

A comparative quantitative analysis of Greek orthographic transparency

  • Athanassios ProtopapasEmail author
  • Eleni L. Vlahou


Orthographic transparency refers to the systematicity in the mapping between orthographic letter sequences and phonological phoneme sequences in both directions, for reading and spelling. Measures of transparency previously used in the analysis of orthographies of other languages include regularity, consistency, and entropy. However, previous reports have typically been hampered by severe restrictions, such as using only monosyllables or only word-initial phonemes. Greek is sufficiently transparent to allow complete sequential alignment between graphemes and phonemes, therefore permitting full analyses at both letter and grapheme levels, using every word in its entirety. Here, we report multiple alternative measures of transparency, using both type and token counts, and compare these with estimates for other languages. We discuss the problems stemming from restricted analysis sets and the implications for psycholinguistic experimentation and computational modeling of reading and spelling.


Feedback Direction Orthographic Transparency Syllable Frequency Token Count Phoneme Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Language and Speech ProcessingMaroussiGreece
  2. 2.University of CreteRethymnoGreece

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