Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 109–115

Facial expressions of emotion (KDEF): Identification under different display-duration conditions


DOI: 10.3758/BRM.40.1.109

Cite this article as:
Calvo, M.G. & Lundqvist, D. Behav Res (2008) 40: 109. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.1.109


Participants judged which of seven facial expressions (neutrality, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, fear, and disgust) were displayed by a set of 280 faces corresponding to 20 female and 20 male models of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database (Lundqvist, Flykt, & Öhman, 1998). Each face was presented under free-viewing conditions (to 63 participants) and also for 25, SO, 100, 250, and 500 msec (to 160 participants), to examine identification thresholds. Measures of identification accuracy, types of errors, and reaction times were obtained for each expression. In general, happy faces were identified more accurately, earlier, and faster than other faces, whereas judgments of fearful faces were the least accurate, the latest, and the slowest. Norms for each face and expression regarding level of identification accuracy, errors, and reaction times may be downloaded from

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Psicologia CognitivaUniversidad de La LagunaTenerifeSpain
  2. 2.Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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