Toward empirical behavior laws: II. Effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer paired with food and shock
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A buzzer was paired with food in control rats and with food and shock in experimentals. (1) Baseline bar pressing in experimentais was depressed. (2) Both groups pressed equally often, on the average, to produce the buzzer. (3) Behavior change was greater in experimentals. The data are consistent with a totality-of-reaction theory of conditioned reinforcement.