The effects of chronic maternal absorption of nicotine or hypoxic episodes upon the life span of the offspring
- 92 Downloads
The offspring of rats subjected to either chronic hypoxic episodes (H) or injections of 3.0 mg/kg of nicotine twice daily throughout pregnancy (N) or injected throughout pregnancy and the nursing period (N-N) had significantly shorter life spans than did control offspring (S) of dams injected with a similar amount of isotonic saline twice daily. H animals died earliest, followed by N-N, N, and S rats. These results paralleled those found in our previous studies which involved the use of reinforcement schedules, discrimination problems, and performance in activity wheels. In the latter case, group performance levels increased in the order of H, N-N, N, and S. Tentative explanatory hypotheses for these differences among offspring groups include undernutrition in utero and maternal neglect following birth.
KeywordsNicotine Reinforcement Schedule Discrimination Problem Activity Wheel Hypoxic Episode
- BECKER, R. F., & MARTIN, J. C. Vital effects of chronic nicotine absorption and chronic hypoxic stress during pregnancy and the nursing period. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1971, 110, 522–533.Google Scholar
- VINCENT, N. M. The effects of prenatal alcoholism upon motivation, emotionality, and learning in the rat. American Psychologist, 1958, 13, 401.Google Scholar