Advertisement

Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 534–536 | Cite as

Heat, hostility, and immune function: The moderating effects of gender and demand characteristics

  • Susan Dubitsky
  • Ruth Weber
  • James Rotton
Article

Abstract

It was hypothesized that demand characteristics are responsible for relations between heat and hostility in laboratory experiments. This hypothesis was tested by leading 28 males and 28 females to believe that heat would have either positive or negative effects and then exposing them to either moderately or very high temperatures. As hypothesized, the subjects who were led to expect negative effects from heat exposure expressed more hostility and evidenced less positive affect than those who were led to expect positive effects. In addition, higher levels of secretory immuno-globulin A were found in the saliva of the males when heat was portrayed in threatening rather than beneficial terms.

Keywords

Negative Affect Positive Affect Demand Characteristic SIgA Level Heat Chamber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson, C. A. (1990). Effects of hot temperature on arousal and hostility. Unpublished manuscript, University of Missouri, Columbia.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C. A., & Anderson, D. C. (1984). Ambient temperature and violent crime: Test of the linear and curvilinear hypotheses. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 46, 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dubitsky, S., Weber, R., & Rotton, J. (1993, June). Collection of saliva samples for biochemical assays: A comparison of methods. Paper presented at the Convention of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Housch, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Housch, D. J., Evans, S. L., & Tharp, D. J. (1991). The effects of exercise at various temperatures on salivary levels of immunoglobulin A. International journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 498–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jemmott, J. B. I., & McClelland, D. C. (1989). Secretory IgA as a measure of resistance to infectious disease: Comments on Stone, Cox, Valdimarsdottir, and Neale. Behavioral Medicine, 15, 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Knasko, S. C., Gilbert, A. N., & Sabini, J. (1990). Emotional state, physical well-being, and performance in the presence of feigned ambient odor. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 1345–1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mason, J. W., Maher, J. T., Hartley, L. H., Mougey, E. H., Perlow, M. J., & Jones, L. G. (1976). Selectivity of corticosteroid and catecholamine responses to various natural stimuli. In G. Serban (Ed.), Psychopathology of human adaptation (pp. 147–171). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Orne, M. T. (1969). Demand characteristics and the concept of quasicontrol. In R. Rosenthal & R. L. Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavioral research (pp. 143–179). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ornstein, R., & Sobel, D. (1989). Healthy pleasures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  10. Pennebaker, J. W. (1982). The psychology of physical symptoms. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rotton, J., Shats, M., & Standers, R. (1990). Temperature and pedestrian tempo: Walking without awareness. Environment & Behavior, 22, 650–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Smith, J. M., Bell, P. A., & Fusco, M. E. (1986). The influence of color and demand characteristics on muscle strength and affective ratings of the environment. Journal of General Psychology, 113, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Standers, R., Rotton, J., & Schlossberg, R. (1992). Effects of heat and cognitive demands on ambulatory movement. In E. M. Starnes & J. M. Stein (Eds.), “I can’t get there from here”: Symposium on walking and bicycling issues (pp. 112–122). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  14. Stone, A. A., Cox, D. S., Valdimarsdottir, H., & Neale, J. M. (1987). Secretory IgA as a measure of immunocompetence. Journal of Human Stress, 13, 136–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Veitch, J. A., Gifford, R., & Hine, D. W. (1991). Demand characteristics and full spectrum lighting effects on performance and mood. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Dubitsky
    • 1
  • Ruth Weber
    • 1
  • James Rotton
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentFlorida International UniversityNorth Miami

Personalised recommendations