Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 534–536 | Cite as

Heat, hostility, and immune function: The moderating effects of gender and demand characteristics

  • Susan Dubitsky
  • Ruth Weber
  • James Rotton


It was hypothesized that demand characteristics are responsible for relations between heat and hostility in laboratory experiments. This hypothesis was tested by leading 28 males and 28 females to believe that heat would have either positive or negative effects and then exposing them to either moderately or very high temperatures. As hypothesized, the subjects who were led to expect negative effects from heat exposure expressed more hostility and evidenced less positive affect than those who were led to expect positive effects. In addition, higher levels of secretory immuno-globulin A were found in the saliva of the males when heat was portrayed in threatening rather than beneficial terms.


Negative Affect Positive Affect Demand Characteristic SIgA Level Heat Chamber 
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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Dubitsky
    • 1
  • Ruth Weber
    • 1
  • James Rotton
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentFlorida International UniversityNorth Miami

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