Psychonomic Science

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 77–80 | Cite as

Effects of spaces on report from tachistoscopically presented letter strings

  • W. K. Estes
  • G. L. Wolford
Perception and Performance Information Processing


The introduction of spaces into tachistoscopically presented strings of letters produced substantial increases in reportability of letters adjacent to the spaces. As in the detection experiment of Shaw (1969), a space had a greater effect on a letter preceding than on a letter following it in the instructed read-out order. However, a similar asymmetry appeared on the central-peripheral dimension in the visual field. Position of a letter in the read-out order and number of adjacent characters interacted strongly with the central-peripheral gradient.


Letter String Type Spaees Initial Letter Control String Correct Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. BUSH, R. R., & MOSTELLER, F. Stochastic models for learning. New York: Wiley, 1955.Google Scholar
  2. ESTES, W. K. Toward a statistical theory of learning. Psychological Review, 1950, 57, 94–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ESTES, W. K., & TAYLOR, H. A. A detection method and probabilistic models for assessing information processing from brief visual displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1964, 52, 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ESTES, W. K., & TAYLOR, H. A. Visual detection in relation to display size and redundancy of critical elements. Perception & Psycho physics, 1966, 1, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. RUMELHART, D. E. A multicomponent theory of briefly exposed visual displays. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1970, 7, 191–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. SHAW, P. Processing of tachistoscopic displays with controlled order of characters and spaces. Perception & Psychophysics, 1969, 6, 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. K. Estes
    • 1
  • G. L. Wolford
    • 1
  1. 1.The Rockefeller UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations