Advertisement

Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 395–398 | Cite as

Developmental aspects of incidental learning in retarded children

  • Robert Fox
  • Frank E. Fulkerson
Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

One hundred and fourteen educable mentally retarded children divided equally into two groups by mental age (older vs. younger) were exposed to one of three different orienting instructions (incidental-semantic, intentional-control, or incidental-categorize) within an incidental learning paradigm. The experimental task consisted of 18 pictures representing six instances of each of three common taxonomic categories. Older subjects recalled significantly more pictures with better clustering than younger subjects. Subjects receiving incidental-categorize instructions recalled significantly more items and showed significantly more clustering than subjects receiving the other instructions. The superiority of the categorize condition was maintained during a 24-h follow-up session.

Keywords

Free Recall Incidental Learning Semantic Condition Categorize Instruction Retarded Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Brown, A. L. The role of strategic behavior in retardate memory. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 7). New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1975, 104, 268–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Edwards, E. L. Experimental design in psychological research. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Fox, R., & Rotatori, A. F. Enhancing the incidental learning of EMR children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 84, 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Glass, A. L., Holyoak, K. J., & Santa, J. L. Cognition. Reading,Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. Jacoby, L. L., & Craik, F. I. M. Effects of elaboration of processing at encoding and retrieval: Trace distinctiveness and recovery of initial context. In L. S. Cermack & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale,N.J: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Kellas, G., Ashcraft, M. H., & Johnson, N. S. Rehearsal processes in the short-term memory performance of mildly retarded adolescents. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 77, 670–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Murphy, M. D., & Brown, A. L. Incidental learning in preschool children as a function of level of cognitive analysis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1975, 19, 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Owings, R. A., & Baumeister, A. A. Levels of processing, encoding strategies, and memory development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1979, 28, 100–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Postman, L. Short-term memory and incidental learning. In A. Melton (Ed.), Categories of human learning. New York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  12. Roenker, D. L., Thompson, C. P., & Brown, S. C. Comparisons of measures for the estimation of clustering in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 76, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Walsh, D. A., & Jenkins, J. J. Effects of orienting tasks on free recall in incidental learning: “Difficulty,” “effort” and “process” explanations. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 481–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The psychonomic soceity, inc 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Fox
    • 1
  • Frank E. Fulkerson
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentWestern Illinois UniversityMacomb

Personalised recommendations