Advertisement

Psychonomic Science

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 137–138 | Cite as

Why are pictures easier to recall than words?

  • Allan Paivio
  • T. B. Rogers
  • Padric C. Smythe
Human Learning and Thinking Memory

Abstract

Pictures of objects were recalled significantly better than their names on the first two of four free recall trials. Recall for the two modes did not differ in intertriai organization but striking differences occurred as a function of input serial order. Picture superiority occurred for terminal input items on Trial 1, and both terminal and early items on Trial 2. The findings are discussed in terms of verbal and nonverbal (concrete) memory codes.

Keywords

Free Recall Serial Position Imagery Ability Memory Image Input Serial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. BOUSFIELD, A. K., & BOUSFIELD, W. A. Measurement of clustering and of sequential constancies in repeated free recall. Psychol. Rep., 1966, 19, 935–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BOUSFIELD, W. A., ESTERSON, J., & WHITMARSH, G. A. The effects of concomitant colored and uncolored pictorial representations on the learning of stimulus words. J. appl. Psychol., 1957, 41, 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. DUCHARME, R., & FRAISSE, P. Etude génétique de la mémorization de mots et d’image. Canad. J. Psychol., 1965, 19, 253–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. FRAISSE, P. Le temps de reaction verbale. Année Psychol., 1964, 64, 21–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. KIRKPATRICK, E. A. An experimental study of memory. Psychol. Rev., 1894, 1, 601–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. LIEBERMAN, L. R., & CULPEPPER, J. T. Words versus objects: Comparison of free verbal recall. Psychol. Rep., 1965, 17, 983–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. PAIVIO, A. Paired-associate learning and free recall of nouns as a function of concreteness, specificity, imagery, and meaningfulness. Psychol. Rep., 1967, 20, 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. PAIVIO, A., & YARMEY, A. D. Pictures versus words as stimuli and responses in paired-associate learning. Psychon. Sci., 1966, 5, 235–236.Google Scholar
  9. TULVING, E. Theoretical issues in free recall. In T. R. Dixon and D. L. Horton (Eds.), Verbal behavior and general behavior theory. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. WING, J. F. Stimulus-trace model of serial acquisition and retention. Proceedings, 75th Annual Convention, Amer. Psychol Assoc., 1967, 59–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Journals 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan Paivio
    • 1
  • T. B. Rogers
    • 1
  • Padric C. Smythe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations