Psychonomic Science

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 273–275 | Cite as

Angularity preferences and stimulus orthogonality in pigeons

  • Leo P. Giurintano
  • Margaret Schadler
  • David R. Thomas
Memory, Learning, & Thinking Sense


Seventy-two pigeons were given single-stimulus training for variable-interval reinforcement and were then tested for generalization (preference) with a white line on a dark surround at angles of 90 (vertical), 60, and 30 deg. The training stimuli were (in different groups) a white light, a very dim white light, a green light, and a white dot on a dark surround. Any preexperimental preference for a given line angle should have been reflected in all groups; however, no such consistent preference was found. All training stimuli were logically orthogonal to the line angle dimension, yet training with the white light or the dim light resulted in a preference for vertical, training with the dot resulted in a preference for 30 deg, and training with the green resulted in no preference at all. Thus, orthogonality is an empirical rather than a logical matter, and it must be demonstrated in the context in which the concept is to be employed.


Training Condition Training Stimulus Generalization Test Line Angle Logical Matter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leo P. Giurintano
    • 1
  • Margaret Schadler
    • 1
  • David R. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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