Advertisement

Animal Learning & Behavior

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 409–440 | Cite as

Incentive contrast: A review of behavioral changes following shifts in reward

  • Charles F. Flaherty
Article

Abstract

The literature relevant to incentive contrast effects is reviewed, with emphasis on the data published since the reviews by Black (1968) and Dunham (1968). Contrary to the evidence available for the earlier reviews, the current literature indicates that positive contrast is a reliable phenomenon. Its occurrence is facilitated by use of a constant delay of reward, use of a long runway, or possibly by a shift while a negative contrast effect, resulting from a previous shift, is still present in the animals’ behavior. Positive contrast also occurs in consummatory behavior when sucrose or saccharin solutions are shifted. Conditions that are ineffective in producing positive contrast are reviewed, as are the effects of numerous variables on both successive and simultaneous contrast. In addition, positive and negative contrast effects resulting from shifts in delay or percentage of reward, contrast resulting from shifts in sucrose, saccharin, or ethanol solutions, contrast in choice behavior, and transsituational contrast are reviewed. The relationship of the data to several theoretical interpretations of contrast is also considered.

Keywords

Contrast Effect Large Reward Negative Contrast Reward Magnitude Positive Contrast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Reference Notes

  1. Sparling, D. L., & Capaldi, E. J.The negative contrast effect as a function of trial spacing. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Flaherty, C. F., Becker, H. C., Checke, S., & Kalucki, B.Negative contrast obtained with repeated shots in sucrose concentration. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  3. Capaldi, E. J.Reinforcement level: An expectancy-associative approach to relative reinforcement and nonreinforcement effects. Paper presented at the Arlington Symposium on Learning, Arlington, Texas, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. Spear, N. E. Contrast effects of reinforcer magnitude and within-subject effects of other reinforcement conditions. InEmpirical and. theoretical problems in the analysis of shifts in reinforcement parameters. Symposium presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. Flaherty, C. F., Checke, S., & Dodgen, C.Simultaneous gustatory contrast reduced by intervening water consumption. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar

References

  1. Amsel, A. Frustrative nonreward In partial reinforcement and discrimination learning.Psychological Review, 1962,69, 306–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amsel, A. Partial reinforcement effects on vigor and persistence. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.),The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Amsel, A., &Roussell, J. Motivational properties of frustration.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1952,43, 363–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashioa, S., &Birch, D. The effects of incentive shift as a function of training.Psychonomic Science, 1964,1, 201–202.Google Scholar
  5. Ashton, A. B., Gandelman, R., &Trowill, J. A. Effects of food deprivation upon elation of saccharin drinking following a temporary shift to water.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 5–6. (a)Google Scholar
  6. Ashton, A., Gandelman, R. J., &Trowill, J. A. Effects of reinforcement shifts upon subsequent sucrose consumption.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 7–8. (b)Google Scholar
  7. Ashton, A. B., &Trowill, J. A. Effects of reinforcement shifts upon lick rate.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 8–10.Google Scholar
  8. Atrens, D. M., Von Vietinohoff-Riesch, F., &DerKarabetian, A. Reinforcement contrast effect on the rewarding and aversive components of intracranial stimulation.Learning and Behavior, 1973,4, 397–404.Google Scholar
  9. Bacotti, A. V. Home cage feeding time controls responding under multiple schedules.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1976,4, 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baltzer, V., &Weiskrantz, L. Negative and positive behavioral contrast in the same animals.Nature, 1970,228, 581–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnes, W., &Tombaugh, T. Another failure to obtain negative contrast following reductions in sucrose reward.Psychological Reports, 1973,33, 801–802.Google Scholar
  12. Barnett, S. A. The rat: A study in behavior, London: Methuen, 1963.Google Scholar
  13. Bartoshuk, L. M. Water taste in man.Perception & Psychophysics, 1968,3, 69–72.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, H. C., &Flaherty, C. F. Influence of ethanol on contrast in consummatory behavior.Psychopharmacology, 1982,77, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beery, R. G. A negative contrast effect of reward delay in differential conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,77, 429–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benefield, R., Oscos, A., &Ehrenfreund, D. Role of frustration in successive positive contrast.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,86, 648–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bevan, W. The pooling mechanism and the phenomena of reinforcement. In O. J. Harvey (Ed.),Motivation and social interaction. New York: Ronald, 1963.Google Scholar
  18. Bevan, W. An adaptation-level interpretation of reinforcement.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1966,23, 511–531.Google Scholar
  19. Bevan, W. The contextual basis of behavior.American Psychologist, 1968,23, 701–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bindra, D. A unified account of classical conditioning and operant training. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.),Classical conditioning II. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Bindra, D. A motivational view of learning, performance and behavior modification.Psychological Review, 1974,81, 199–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bintz, J. Between and within-subject effect of shock intensity on avoidance in goldfish (Carassius aura tus).Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,75, 92–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bitterman, M. E. The comparative analysis of learning.Science, 1975,118, 699–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bitterman, M. E. Incentive contrast in honey bees.Science, 1976,192, 380–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Black, R. W. Shifts in magnitude of reward and contrast effects in instrumental and selective learning: A reinterpretation.Psychological Review, 1968,75, 114–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bohdanecky, Z., &Jarvik, M. E. Impairment to one-trial passive avoidance learning in mice by scopolamine, scopamine methylbromide and physostigmine.International Journal of Neuropharmacology, 1967,6, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bolles, R. C. Reinforcement, expectancy, and learning.Psychological Review, 1972,79, 394–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bower, G. H. A contrast effect in differential conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1961,62, 196–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bower, G. H., Fowler, H., &Trapold, M. A. Escape learning as a function of amount of shock reduction.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959,58, 482–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brownlee, A., &Bitterman, M. E. Differential reward conditioning in the pigeon.Psychonomic Science, 1968,12, 345–346.Google Scholar
  31. Burns, R. A. Effects of sequences of sucrose reward magnitudes with short ITIs in rats.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1976,4, 473–479.Google Scholar
  32. Burns, R. A., &Burns, D. P. Reduction in sucrose reward magnitude without generalization decrement.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 196–198.Google Scholar
  33. Burns, R. A., Dupree, E. S., &Lorio, T. S. Successive reductions of liquid and solid rewards.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 351–354.Google Scholar
  34. Burns, R. A., Woodward, W. T., Henderson, T. B., &Bitterman, M. E. Simultaneous contrast in the goldfish.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1974,2, 97–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Calef, R. S. The effect of large and small magnitudes of intertrial reinforcement on successive contrast effects.Psychonomic Science, 1972,29, 309–312.Google Scholar
  36. Calef, R. S., Calef, R. A., Maxwell, P. R., &McHewitt, E. R. Positive discrimination contrast with delay of reward or low drive.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,6, 120–122.Google Scholar
  37. Calef, R. S., Calef, R. A., Prochaska, A. D., &Geller, E. S. Negative contrast as a function of reinforcement location and consistent vs. varied reward magnitude.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 471–474.Google Scholar
  38. Calef, R. S., Hopkins, D. C., McHewitt, E. R., &Maxwell, F. R. Performance to varied reward following continuous reward training in the runway.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,2, 103–104.Google Scholar
  39. Campbell, D. E., Crumbauoh, C. M., Knouse, S. B., &Snodqrass, E. A test of the “ceiling effect” hypothesis of positive contrast.Psychonomic Science, 1970,20, 17–18.Google Scholar
  40. Campbell, E. M., &Meyer, P. A. Effects of daily reward sequence on simultaneous and successive negative contrast in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,74, 434–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Capaldi, E. D. Simultaneous shifts in reward magnitude and level of food deprivation.Psychonomic Science, 1971,23, 357–359.Google Scholar
  42. Capaldi, E. D. Effects of changing alley color on the successive negative contrast effect.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 69–70.Google Scholar
  43. Capaldi, E. D., &Singh, R. Percentage body weight and the successive negative contrast effect in rats.Learning & Motivation, 1973,4, 405–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Capaldi, E. D., Smith, N. S., &White, L. A. Control of reward expectancies by drive stimuli.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1977,3, 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Capaldi, E. J. Partial reinforcement: A hypothesis of sequential effects.Psychological Review, 1966,73, 459–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Capaldi, E. J. Successive negative contrast effect: Intertriai interval, type of shift, and four sources of generalization decrement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972,96, 433–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Capaldi, E. J. Partial reward either following or preceding consistent reward: A case of reinforcement level.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974,102, 954–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Capaldi, E. J., &Lynch, D. Repeated shifts in reward magnitude: Evidence in favor of an associational and absolute (non-contextual) interpretation.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967,75, 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Capaldi, E. J., &Ziff, D. R. Schedule of partial reward and the negative contrast effect.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,68, 593–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Carlton, P. L. Brain acetylcholine and inhibition. In J. T. Tapp (Ed.),Reinforcement and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  51. Chechile, R., &Fowler, H. Primary and secondary negative incentive contrast in differential conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973,97, 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chkn, J., Gross, K., &Amsel, A. Ontogeny of successive negative contrast and its dissociation from other paradoxical effects in preweanling rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1981,95, 146–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ciszewski, W. A., &Flaherty, C. F. Failure of a reinstatement treatment to influence negative contrast.American Journal of Psychology, 1977,90, 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cleland, E. A., Williams, M. Y., &DiLollo, V. Magnitude of negative contrast effect in relation to drive level.Psychonomic Science, 1969,15, 121–122.Google Scholar
  55. Cochrane, T. L., Scobie, S. R., &Fallon, D. Negative contrast in goldfish (Carassius auratus).Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,1, 411–413.Google Scholar
  56. Collier, G., &Marx, M. H. Changes in performance as a function of shifts in the magnitude of reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959,57, 305–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Collier, G., Knarr, F. A., &Marx, M. H. Some relations between the intensive properties of the consummatory response and reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1961,62, 484–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cowan, P. E., &Barnett, S. A. The new-object and new-place reaction ofRattus rattus L.Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1975,56, 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cox, W. M. A review of recent incentive contrast studies involving discrete-trial procedures.Psychological Record, 1975,25, 373–393.Google Scholar
  60. Crespi, L. P. Quantitative variation in incentive and performance in the white rat.American Journal of Psychology, 1942,55, 467–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Crespi, L. P. Amount of reinforcement and level of performance.Psychological Review, 1944,51, 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Daly, H. B. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of complete and incomplete reward reduction in the double runway.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,76, 430–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Daly, H. B. Reinforcing properties of escape from frustration. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation. New York: Academic Press, 1974. (a)Google Scholar
  64. Daly, H. B. Arousal of frustration following gradual reductions in reward magnitude in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,86, 1149–1155. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Daly, H. B., &Rosenberg, K. M. Infantile stimulation and its effects on frustration- and fear-motivated behavior in rats.Learning and Motivation, 1973,4, 381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dantzer, R., Arnone, M., &Mormede, P. Effects of frustration on behavior and plasma corticosteroid levels in pigs.Physiology & Behavior, 1980,24, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Davenport, J. W. The interaction of magnitude and delay of reinforcement in spatial discrimination.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962,55, 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Davis, S. F., Harper, W. E., &Seago, J. D. Runway performance of normal, sham, and anosmic rats as a function of magnitude of reward and magnitude shift.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,6, 367–369.Google Scholar
  69. Davis, S. F., &North, A. J. The effect of varied reinforcement training on behavior following incentive reduction.Psychonomic Science, 1967,9, 395–396.Google Scholar
  70. Denenberg, V. H., &Grota, L. J. Social-seeking and novelty-seeking behavior as a function of differential rearing histories.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1964,69, 453–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. DiLollo, V. Runway performance in relation to runway-goal-box similarity and changes in incentive amount.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1964,58, 327–329. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. DiLollo, V. Contrast effects in the judgement of lifted weights.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1964,68, 383–387. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. DiLollo, F. D., &Beez, V. Negative contrast effect as a function of magnitude of reward decrement.Psychonomic Science, 1966,5, 99–100.Google Scholar
  74. DiLollo, V., &Meyer, P. N. Variations in fluid intake following shifts between water and saccharin solution.Psychonomic Science, 1970,18, 55–56.Google Scholar
  75. Dube, R., Ashton, A. B., &Trowill, J. A. Responses to palatability shifts: Effects of varying the retention interval.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 10–12.Google Scholar
  76. Dunham, P. J. Contrasted conditions of reinforcement: A selective critique.Psychological Bulletin, 1968,69, 295–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dunham, P. J., &Kilps, B. Shifts in magnitude of reinforcement: Confounded factors or contrast effects.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,79, 373–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Dunlap, W. P., &Frates, S. D. Influence of deprivation on the frustration effect.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 1–2.Google Scholar
  79. Dyck, D. G., Dresel, K. M., Thiessen, R. B., &DiLollo, V. Extinction following separate-phase acquisition: Effects of shifts in reinforcement percentage and N-length.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,10, 439–442.Google Scholar
  80. Ehrenfreund, D. Effect of drive on successive magnitude shift in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,76, 418–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ehrenfreund, D., &Badia, P. Response strength as a function of drive level and pre- and postshift incentive magnitude.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962,63, 468–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Eisenberoer, R., Frank, M., &Park, D. C. Incentive contrast of choice behavior.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1975,4, 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Elliott, M. H. The effect of change of reward on the maze performance of rats.University of California Publications-Psychology, 1928,4, 19–30.Google Scholar
  84. Faoen, J. W., &Shoemaker, G. E. Contrast effects in the rat: A developmental study.Developmental Psychobiology, 1979,12, 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ferrel, H. J., &Shanab, M. E. Contrast effects as a function of shifts in delay of water reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,5, 417–420.Google Scholar
  86. Fitzgerald, F. S. K. The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1953.Google Scholar
  87. Flaherty, C. F., &Avdzej, A. Bidirectional contrast as a function of rate of alternation of two sucrose solutions.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1974,4, 505–507.Google Scholar
  88. Flaherty, C. F., &Avdzej, A. Transsituational negative contrast.Animal Learning A Behavior, 1976,4, 49–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Flaherty, C. F., Becker, H. C., &Driscoll, C. D. Conditions under which amobarbital sodium influences contrast in consummatory behavior.Physiological Psychology, 1982,10, 122–128.Google Scholar
  90. Flaherty, C. F., Blitzer, R., &Collier, Q. H. Open field behaviors elicited by reward reduction.American Journal of Psychology, 1978,91, 429–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Flaherty, C. F., Capobianco, S., &Hamilton, L. W. Effects of septal lesions on retention of negative contrast.Physiology & Behavior, 1973,11, 625–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Flaherty, C. F., &Caprio, M. Dissociation between instrumental and consummatory measures of incentive contrast.American Journal of Psychology, 1976,89, 485–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Flaherty, C. F., &Checke, S. Anticipation of incentive gain.Animal Learning A Behavior, 1982,10, 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Flaherty, C. F., Ciszewski, W. A., &Kaplan, P. S. Retention of taste quality following brief exposure to sucrose.Chemical Senses and Flavour, 1979,4, 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Flaherty, C. F., &Driscoll, C. Amobarbital sodium reduces successive gustatory contrast.Psychopharmacology, 1980,69, 161–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Flaherty, C. F., &Hamilton, L. W. Responsivity to decreasing sucrose concentrations following septal lesions in the rat.Physiology & Behavior, 1971,6, 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Flaherty, C. F., &Kaplan, P. Gustatory contrast in rats.Chemical Senses and Flavour, 1979,4, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Flaherty, C. F., &Kelly, J. Effect of deprivation state on successive negative contrast.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,1, 365–367.Google Scholar
  99. Flaherty, C. F., &Laroen, J. Within-subjects positive and negative contrast effects in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975,88, 653–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Flaherty, C. F., &Lombardi, B. R. Effect of prior differential taste experience on retention of taste quality.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,9, 391–394.Google Scholar
  101. Flaherty, C. F., Lombardi, B. R., Kapust, J., &D’Amato, M. R. Incentive contrast undiminished by extended testing, imipramine, or chlordiazepoxide.Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1977,7, 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Flaherty, C. F., Lombardi, B. R., Wrightson, J., &Deptula, D. Conditions under which chlordiazepoxide influences gustatory contrast.Psychopharmacology, 1980,67, 269–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Flaherty, C. F., &Meinrath, A. B. Influences of scopolamine on sucrose intake under absolute and relative test conditions.Physiological Psychology, 1979,7, 412–418.Google Scholar
  104. Flaherty, C. F., Powell, G., &Hamilton, L. W. Septal lesion, sex, and incentive shift effects on open field behavior of rats.Physiology & Behavior, 1979,22, 903–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Flaherty, C. F., Riley, E. D., &Spear, N. E. Effect of sucrose concentration and goal units on runway behavior in the rat.Learning and Motivation, 1973,4, 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Flaherty, C. F., &Sepanak, S. J. Bidirectional contrast, matching, and power functions obtained in sucrose consumption by rats.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1978,6, 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Flaherty, C. F., Troncoso, B., &Deschu, N. Open field behaviors correlated with reward availability and reward shift in three rat strains.American Journal of Psychology, 1979,92, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Flaherty, C. F., Wrightson, J., Deptula, D., &Duston, C. Chlordiazepoxide does not influence simultaneous gustatory contrast.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979,14, 216–218.Google Scholar
  109. Fox, P. A. Reward and nonreward produced stimuli and performance to patterned reinforcement.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972,80, 342–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Fox, P. A., Calef, R. S., Gavelek, J. R., &McHose, J. H. Synthesis of differential conditioning and double alley data: Performance to S+ as a function of intertriai interval and antedating reward events.Psychonomic Science, 1970,18, 141–143.Google Scholar
  111. Franchina, J. J., &Brown, T. S. Reward magnitude shift effects in rats with hippocampal lesions.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,76, 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Galbraith, K. J., Rashotte, M. E., &Amsel, A. Withinsubjects partial reinforcement effects varying percentage reward to the partial stimulus between groups.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,77, 547–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Gandelman, R., &Trowill, J. A. Effects of reinforcement shifts upon subsequent saccharin consumption.Psychonomic Science, 1969,15, 25.Google Scholar
  114. Gavelek, J. R., &McHose, J. H. Contrast effects in differential delay of reward conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,86, 454–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gleitman, H., &Steinman, F. Depression effect as a function of retention interval before and after shift in reward magnitude.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1964,57, 158–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Goldman, L., Coover, G. D., &Levine, S. Bi-directional effects of reinforcement shifts on pituitary adrenal activity.Physiology & Behavior, 1973,10, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Gonzalez, R. C., &Bitterman, M. E. Spaced-trials partial reinforcement effect as a function of contrast.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,67, 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gonzalez, R. C., &Champlin, G. Positive behavioral contrast, negative simultaneous contrast and their relation to frustration in pigeons.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,87, 173–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gonzalez, R. C., Fernhoff, D., &David, F. G. Contrast, resistance to extinction, and forgetting in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973,84, 562–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gonzalez, R. C., Ferry, M., &Powers, A. S. The adjustment of goldfish to reduction in magnitude of reward in massed trials.Animal Learning A Behavior, 1974,2, 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gonzalez, R. C., Gleitman, H., &Bitterman, M. E. Some observations on the depression effect.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962,55, 578–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gonzalez, R. C., Holmes, N. K., &Bitterman, M. E. Resistance to extinction in the goldfish as a function of frequency and amount of reward.American Journal of Psychology, 1967,80, 269–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Gonzalez, R. C., Potts, A., Pitcoff, K., &Bitterman, M. E. Runway performance of goldfish as a function of complete and incomplete reduction in amount of reward.Psychonomic Science, 1972,27, 305–307.Google Scholar
  124. Gonzalez, R. C., &Powers, A. S. Simultaneous contrast in goldfish.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1973,1, 96–98.Google Scholar
  125. Goodrich, K. P., &Zaretsky, H. Running speed as a function of concentration of sucrose during pretraining.Psychological Reports, 1962,11, 463–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gordon, W. C., Flaherty, C. F., &Riley, E. P. Negative contrast as a function of the interval between preshift and post-shift training.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,1, 25–27.Google Scholar
  127. Gurowitz, E. M., Rosen, A. J., &Tessel, R. E. Incentive shift performance in cingulectomized rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,70, 476–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Haggbloom, S. J. Effects of a 24-hour intertriai interval on successive differential conditioning and simultaneous negative contrast.American Journal of Psychology, 1979,92, 537–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Harris, S. J., Smith, M. G., &Weinstock, S. Effects of nonreinforcement on subsequent reinforced running behavior.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962,64, 388–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Harker, G. S. Delay of reward and performance of an instrumental response.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1956,51, 303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hearst, E., &Peterson, G. B. Transfer of conditioned excitation and inhibition from one operant response to another.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973,99, 360–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Helson, H. Adaptation-level theory: An experimental and systematic approach to behavior. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.Google Scholar
  133. Henderson, K. Within-subjects partial reinforcement effects in acquisition and in later discrimination learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966,72, 704–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Homzie, M. J., &Ross, L. E. Runway performance following a reduction in the concentration of a liquid reward.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962,55, 1029–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hoyenga, K. T., &Hoyenoa, K. B. Experimental factors in the enhancement of saccharin intake after shifts to water.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1973,1, 244–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Huang, I.-N. Successive contrast effects as a function of type and magnitude of reward.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,82, 64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hull, C. L. Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1943.Google Scholar
  138. Hull, C. L. A behavior system. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  139. Hulse, S. H. Reinforcement contrast effects in rats following experimental definition of a dimension of reinforcement magnitude.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973,85, 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ison, J. R., Glass, D. H., &Daly, H. B. Reward magnitude changes following differential conditioning and partial reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,81, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ison, J. R., &Krane, R. V. Induction in differential instrumental conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,80, 183–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ison, J. R., &Northman, J. Amobarbital sodium and instrumental performance changes following an increase in reward magnitude.Psychonomic Science, 1968,12, 185–186.Google Scholar
  143. Kalish, H. I., &Haber, A. Prediction of discrimination from deprivation level.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965,60, 125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Klinger, E. Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives.Psychological Review, 1975,82, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Klinqer, E. Meaning and void: Inner experience and the incentives in people’s lives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  146. Klinger, E., Barta, S. G., &Kemble, E. D. Cyclic activity changes during extinction in rats: A potential model of depression.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1974,2, 313–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Knarr, F. A., &Collier, G. Taste and consummatory activity in amount and gradient of reinforcement functions.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962,63, 579–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kramarcy, N., Mikulka, P., &Freeman, F. The effects of dorsal hippocampal lesions on reinforcement shifts.Physiological Psychology, 1973,1, 248–250.Google Scholar
  149. Krane, R. V., &Ison, J. R. Positive induction in differential instrumental conditioning: Effect of extended acquisition training.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,73, 334–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Krane, R. V., &Ison, J. R. Positive induction in differential instrumental conditioning: Effect of the interstimulus interval.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,75, 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lehr, R. Partial reward and positive contrast effect.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1974,2, 221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Leung, C. M., &Jensen, G. D. Shifts in percentage of reinforcement viewed as changes in incentive.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,76, 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Likely, D., Little, L., &Mackintosh, N. J. Extinction as a function of magnitude and percentage of food or sucrose reward.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1971,25, 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Logan, F. A. The role of delay of reinforcement in determining reaction potential.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1952,43, 393–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Logan, F. A. Incentive. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  156. Lombardi, B. R. Enhanced neophobia induced by incentive contrast. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, 1978.Google Scholar
  157. Lombardi, B. R. Enhanced neophobia induced by incentive contrast.Animal Learning A Behavior, 1980,8, 617–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lombardi, B. R., &Flaherty, C. F. Apparent disinhibition of successive but not of simultaneous negative contrast.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1978,6, 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Lowes, G., &Bitterman, M. E. Reward and learning in the goldfish.Science, 1967,157, 455–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ludvioson, H. W., &Gay, S. E. Differential reward conditioning, S− contrast as a function of the magnitude of S+.Psychonomic Science, 1966,5, 289–290.Google Scholar
  161. Ludvioson, H. W., &Gay, R. A. An investigation of conditions determining contrast effects in differential reward conditioning.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967,75, 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mackinnon, J. R. Competing responses in a differential magnitude of reward discrimination.Psychonomic Science, 1968,12, 333–334.Google Scholar
  163. Mackintosh, N. J. Reward and the after-effects of reward in the learning of goldfish.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,76, 225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Mackintosh, N. J., &Lord, J. Simultaneous and successive contrast with delay of reward.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1973,1, 283–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Marx, M. H. Positive contrast in instrumental learning from qualitative shift in incentive.Psychonomic Science, 1969,16, 254–255.Google Scholar
  166. Matsumoto, R. T. Relative reward effects in differential conditioning.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,68, 589–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Maxwell, F. R., Calef, R. S., Murray, D. W., Shepard, J. C., &Norville, R. A. Positive and negative successive contrast effects following multiple shifts in reward magnitude under high drive and immediate reinforcement.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1976,4, 480–484.Google Scholar
  168. McAllister, D. E., McAllister, W. R., Brooks, C. I., &Goldman, J. A. Magnitude and shift of reward in instrumental averslve learning in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972,80, 490–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. McBurney, D. H. Gustatory cross adaptation between sweet-tasting compounds.Perception A Psychophysics, 1972,11, 225–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. McCain, G., Boodee, A., &Lobb, M. Extended training: Delay of reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,9, 111–112.Google Scholar
  171. McCain, G., &Cooney, J. PCE: I. The effects of three reward magnitude shifts.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,6, 523–526.Google Scholar
  172. McCain, G., Lobb, M., Almand, W., &Leck, D. Delay of reinforcement: Extended training and multiple shifts.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1976,7, 539–541.Google Scholar
  173. McCain, G., Lobb, M., &Newberry, J. Extended training and multiple shifts:. Percentage of reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1976,8, 191–193.Google Scholar
  174. McHewitt, E. R. A comparison of S+ and S− depression effects in differential conditioning.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1974,3, 3–5.Google Scholar
  175. McHewitt, E. R. The effect of prior reward magnitude on the successive negative contrast effect.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,6, 126–128.Google Scholar
  176. McHewitt, E. R., Calef, R. S., Maxwell, F. R., Meyer, P. A., &McHose, J. H. Synthesis of double alley and discrimination phenomena: Apparent positive S+ contrast in differential conditioning.Psychonomic Science, 1969,16, 137–139.Google Scholar
  177. McHose, J. H. Relative reinforcement effects: S1, /S2, and S1, /S1, paradigms in instrumental conditioning.Psychological Review, 1970,77, 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. McHobe, J. H. Role of frustration in the development of relative and absolute S− discrimination contrast effects.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,81, 256–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. McHose, J. H. Stimuli and incentives as determinants of the successive negative contrast effect.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,1, 264–266.Google Scholar
  180. McHose, J. H., &Howard, G. S. Performance in differential instrumental conditioning with infrequent S+ presentations.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973,1, 132–134.Google Scholar
  181. McHose, J. H., McHewitt, E. R., &Peters, D. P. Average reward as a determinant of S− performance in differential conditioning.Psychonomic Science, 1972,29, 129–132.Google Scholar
  182. McHose, J. H., &Moore, J. N. Expectancy, salience, and habit: A noncontextual interpretation of the effects of changes in the conditions of reinforcement on simple instrumental responses.Psychological Review, 1976,83, 292–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. McHose, J. H., &Moore, J. N. A comparison of positive and negative contrast effects.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,11, 363–366.Google Scholar
  184. McHose, J. H., &Peters, D. P. Differential instrumental conditioning as a function of percentage and amount of positive stimulus reward.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973,100, 413–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. McHose, J. H., &Peters, D. P. Partial reward, the negative contrast effect, and incentive averaging.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1975,3, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. McHose, J. H., &Tauber, L. Changes in delay of reinforcement in simple instrumental conditioning.Psychonomic Science, 1972,27, 291–292.Google Scholar
  187. Meinrath, A. B. The role of neophobia in successive negative contrast: Effects of early handling and varied taste exposure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, 1980.Google Scholar
  188. Meiselman, H. L. Effect of presentation procedure on taste intensity functions.Perception & Psychophysics, 1971,10, 15–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Mellgren, R. L. Positive contrast in the rat as a function of number of preshift trials in the runway.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,77, 329–336. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Mellgren, R. L. Shift in magnitude of reward after minimal acquisition.Psychonomic Science, 1971,23, 243–244. (b)Google Scholar
  191. Mellgren, R. L. Positive and negative contrast effects using delayed reinforcement.Learning & Motivation, 1972,3, 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Mellgren, R. L., &Dyck, D. G. Reward magnitude in differential conditioning: Effects of sequential variables in acquisition and extinction.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,86, 1141–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mellgren, R. L., Seybert, J. A., Wrather, D. M., &Dyck, D. G. Preshift reward magnitude and positive contrast in the rat.American Journal of Psychology, 1973,86, 383–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mellgren, R. L., Wrather, D. M., &Dyck, D. G. Differential conditioning and contrast effects in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972,80, 478–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Meyer, P. A., &Campbell, E. M. Role of daily reward sequences on S− discrimination contrast in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973,82, 426–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Mikulka, P. J., Lehr, R., &Pavlik, W. B. Effect of reinforcement schedules on reward shifts.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967,74, 57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Mitchell, D., Fairbanks, M., &Laycock, J. D. Suppression of neophobia by chlorpromazine in wild rats.Behavioral Biology, 1977,19, 309–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Moore, J. N., &McHose, J. H. The effects of delay of reward on negative contrast effects associated with reductions in reward magnitude.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,6, 497–500.Google Scholar
  199. Morrison, J. H., &Porter, J. J. Magnitude of reward in selective learning.Psychonomic Science, 1965,3, 531–532.Google Scholar
  200. Moskowitz, H. R. Ratio scales of sugar sweetness.Perception & Psychophysics, 1970,7, 315–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Murphy, H. M., &Brown, T. S. Effects of hippocampal lesions on simple and preferential consummatory behavior in the rat.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,72, 404–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Nation, J. R., &Durst, D. The effects of schedules of reinforcement and gradual or abrupt increases in reward magnitude on resistance to extinction.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1980,15, 425–427.Google Scholar
  203. Nation, J. R., Mellgren, R. L., &Wrather, D. M. Contrast effects with shifts in punishment level.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,5, 167–169.Google Scholar
  204. Nation, J. R., Roop, S. S., &Dickinson, R. W. Positive contrast following gradual and abrupt increases in reward magnitude using delay of reinforcement.Learning & Motivation, 1976,7, 571–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Nation, J. R., Wrather, D. M., &Mellgren, R. L. Contrast effects in escape conditioning of rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,86, 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Olton, D. S., &Samuelbon, R. J. Remembrance of places past: Spatial memory in rats.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1976,2, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Panksepp, J., &Trowill, J. A. Positive and negative contrast effects with hypothalamic reward.Physiology & Behavior, 1969,4, 173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Panksepp, J., &Trowill, J. A. Positive incentive contrast with rewarding electrical stimulation of the brain.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,70, 358–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Panksepp, J., &Trowill, J. Positive and negative contrast in licking with shifts in sucrose concentration as a function of food deprivation.Learning & Motivation, 1971,2, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Pavlov, I. P. Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.Google Scholar
  211. Pieper, W. A., &Marx, M. H. Effects of within-session incentive contrast on instrumental acquisition and performance.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1963,65, 568–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Pert, A., &Bitterman, M. E. Reward and learning in the turtle.Learning & Motivation, 1970,1, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Pert, A., &Gonzalez, R. C. Behavior of the turtle (Chrysemys pictapicla) in simultaneous, successive, and behavioral contrast situations.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,87, 526–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Peters, D. P., &McHose, J. H. Effects of varied preshift reward magnitude on successive negative contrast effects in rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974,86, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Pinel, J. P., &Huano, E. Effects of periodic withdrawal on ethanol and saccharin selection in rats.Physiology & Behavior, 1976,16, 693–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Pinel, J. P., &Rovner, L. I. Saccharin elation effect.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,9, 275–278.Google Scholar
  217. Platt, J. R., &Gay, R. A. Differential magnitude of reward conditioning as a function of predifferential reward magnitude.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,77, 393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Premack, D. On some boundary conditions of contrast. In J. T. Tapp (Eds.),Reinforcement and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  219. Premack, D., &Hillix, W. A. Evidence for shift effects in the consummatory response.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962,63, 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Raymond, B., Aderman, M., &Wolach, A. H. Incentive shifts in the goldfish.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972,78, 10–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Rescorla, R. A. Probability of shock in the presence and absence of CS in fear conditioning.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968,66, 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Rescorla, R. A. Conditioned inhibition of fear resulting from negative CS-UCS contingencies.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,67, 504–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Ridoers, A., &Gray, J. A. Influence of amylobarbitone on operant depression and elation effects in the rat.Psychopharmacologia, 1973,32, 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Riley, A., &Dunlap, W. P. Successive negative contrast as a function of deprivation condition following shifts in sucrose concentration.American Journal of Psychology, 1979,92, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Roberts, W. A. The effects of shifts in magnitude of reward on runway performance in immature and adult rats.Psychonomic Science, 1966,5, 37–38.Google Scholar
  226. Roberts, W. A., &Pixley, L. The effect of chlorpromazine on the depression effect.Psychonomic Science, 1965,3, 407–408.Google Scholar
  227. Roop, S. S., &Nation, J. R. Positive contrast following a shift from partial punishment to continuous reinforcement.Psychological Reports, 1976,39, 934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Rosellini, R. A., &Terris, W. Incentive shift in the rat following training to resist punishment.Learning & Motivation, 1975,6, 421–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Rosen, A. J. Incentive-shift performance as a function of magnitude of sucrose rewards.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1966,62, 487–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Rosen, A. J., &Ison, J. R. Runway performance following changes in sucrose rewards.Psychonomic Science, 1965,2, 335–336.Google Scholar
  231. Rosen, A. J., Glass, D. H., &Ison, J. R. Amobarbital sodium and instrumental performance changes following reward reduction.Psychonomic Science, 1967,9, 129–130.Google Scholar
  232. Rosen, A. J., &Tessel, R. E. Chlorpromazine, chlordiazepoxide and incentive shift performance in the rat.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,72, 257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Royce, J. R., Poley, W., &Yeudall, L. T. Behavior-genetic analysis of mouse emotionality: I. Factor analysis.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973,83, 36–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Schrier, A. M. Effects of an upward shift in amount of rein-forcer on runway performance of rats.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967,64, 490–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Seybert, J. A. Positive and negative contrast effects as a function of shifts in percentage of reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979,13, 19–22.Google Scholar
  236. Seybert, J. A., &Melloren, R. L. Positive contrast: Control of ceiling effect using a long runway.Psychological Reports, 1972,31, 14.Google Scholar
  237. Soro, J. A., Gloteelty, R. A., &Podlesni, J. A. Contrast effects and delay of reward in the double alleyway.Psychonomic Science, 1969,16, 29–31.Google Scholar
  238. Soro, J. A., &Weinstock, S. Effects of delay on subsequent running under immediate reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1963,66, 260–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Shanab, M. E. Positive transfer between delay and nonreward.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971,91, 98–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Shanab, M. E., &Biller, J. D. Positive contrast in the runway obtained following a shift in both delay and magnitude of reward.Learning and Motivation, 1972,3, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Shanab, M. E., Birnbaum, D. W., &Cavallaro, G. Positive contrast obtained in reacquisition following interpolation of nonreinforced or partially reinforced trials.Learning and Motivation, 1974,5, 258–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Shanab, M. E., &Cavallaro, G. Positive contrast obtained in rats following a shift in schedule, delay, and magnitude of reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,5, 109–112.Google Scholar
  243. Shanab, M., Domino, J., &Melrose, S. The effects of shifts in delay of liquid sucrose reward in thirsty rats.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,10, 287–290.Google Scholar
  244. Shanab, M. E., Domino, J., &Ralph, L. The effects of repeated shifts in magnitude of food reward upon the barpress rate in the rat.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 29–31.Google Scholar
  245. Shanab, M. E., &Ferrell, H. J. Positive contrast in the Lashley maze under different drive conditions.Psychonomic Science, 1970,20, 31–32.Google Scholar
  246. Shanab, M. E., &Ferrell, H. J. Transfer between downshift in reward magnitude and continuous delay of reward.Learning and Motivation, 1975,6, 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Shanab, M. E., France, J., &Young, T. Negative contrast effect obtained with downshifts in magnitude but not concentration of solid sucrose reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,5, 429–432.Google Scholar
  248. Shanab, M. E., France, J., &Young, T. Positive and negative contrast effects obtained following shifts in liquid sucrose reward in thirsty rats.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1976,4, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Shanab, M. E., &McCuistion, S. Effects of shifts in magnitude and delay of reinforcement upon runway performance in the rat.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 264–266.Google Scholar
  250. Shanab, M. E., Rouse, L. O., &Cavallaro, G. Effects of shifts in delay of reward in rats as a function of reward magnitude.Journal of General Psychology, 1973,89, 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shanab, M. E., Sanders, R., &Premack, D. Positive contrast in the runway obtained with delay of reward.Science, 1969,164, 724–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Shanab, M. E., &Spencer, R. E. Positive and negative contrast effects obtained following shifts in delayed water reward.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,12, 199–202.Google Scholar
  253. Shanab, M. E., &White, R. Positive contrast obtained with punishment.Journal of General Psychology, 1972,86, 247–251.Google Scholar
  254. Shanab, M. E., Youno, T., &France, J. Negative contrast as a function of downshifts in magnitude of sucrose concentrations in thirsty rats.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975,5, 381–384.Google Scholar
  255. Sheehan, G. A. Running and being: The total experience. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.Google Scholar
  256. Sinclair, J. D., Walker, S., &Jordan, W. Behavioral and physiological changes associated with various durations of alcohol deprivation in rats.Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1973,34, 744–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Singer, B. F. Incentive shift in a choice situation.American Journal of Psychology, 1973,86, 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Spear, N. E. Replication report: Absence of a successive contrast effect on instrumental running behavior after a shift in sucrose concentration.Psychological Reports, 1965,16, 393–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Spear, N. E., &Hill, W. F. Adjustment to new reward: Simultaneous and successive-contrast effects.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1965,70, 510–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Spear, N. E. Retention of reinforcer magnitude.Psychological Review, 1967,74, 216–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Spear, N. E., &Pavlik, W. B. Percentage of reinforcement and reward magnitude effects in a T-maze between and within subjects.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966,71, 521–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Spear, N. E., & Spitzner, J. H. Simultaneous and successive contrast effects of reward magnitude in selective learning.Psychological Monographs, 1966,10 (10, Whole No. 618).Google Scholar
  263. Spear, N. E., &Spitzner, J. H. Influence of degree of training and prior reinforcer magnitude on contrast effects and resistance to extinction within S.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,68, 427–433. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Spear, N. E., &Spitzner, J. H. Simultaneous and successive shifts in reinforcer magnitude and influence of discrimination task.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969,69, 160–165. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Spence, K. W. Behavior theory and conditioning. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Spencer, R. E., &Shanab, M. E. Contrast effects as a function of delay and shifts in magnitude of water reward in thirsty rats.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979,13, 93–96.Google Scholar
  267. Stanton, M., &Amsel, A. Adjustment to reward reduction (but no negative contrast) in rats, 11, 14, and 16 days of age.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980,94, 446–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Stevens, S. S. Sensory scales of taste intensity.Perception & Psychophysics, 1969,6, 302–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Thomas, D. R., &Kino, R. D. Stimulus generalization as a function of level of motivation.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959,57, 323–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Tinklepaugh, O. An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys.Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1928,8, 197–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Tolman, E. C. Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Century, 1932.Google Scholar
  272. Vogel, J. R., Mikulka, P. J., &Spear, N. E. Effect of interpolated extinction and level of training on the “depression effect.”Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966,72, 51–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Vooel, J. R., Mikulka, P. J., &Spear, N. E. Effects of shifts in sucrose and saccharin concentrations on licking behavior in the rat.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968,66, 661–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Vooel, J. R., &Principi, K. Effects of chlordiazepoxide on depressed performance after reward reduction.Psychophar-macologia, 1971,21, 8–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wagner, A. R. Effects of amount and percentage of reinforcement and number of acquisition trials on conditioning and extinction.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1961,62, 234–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Wagner, A. R. Frustrative nonreward: A variety of punishment? In B. A. Campbell & R. M. Church (Eds.),Punishment. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.Google Scholar
  277. Walkenbach, J., Haddad, N. F., &Mellgren, R. L. N-length shifts and successive contrast effects.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1978,11, 83–85.Google Scholar
  278. Wayner, M. J., Greenberg, I., Tartaglione, D., Nolley, D., Fraley, S., &Cott, A. A new factor affecting the consumption of ethyl alcohol and other sapid fluids.Physiology & Behavior, 1972,8, 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Weinstein, L. Negative incentive contrast effects with saccharin vs sucrose and partial reinforcement.Psychonomic Science, 1970,21, 276–278. (a)Google Scholar
  280. Weinstein, L. Negative incentive contrast with sucrose.Psychonomic Science, 1970,19, 13–14. (b)Google Scholar
  281. Weinstein, L. Effects of magnitude of reward increment on positive incentive contrast effects in the rat.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977,9, 233–235.Google Scholar
  282. Weinstock, R. B. Preacquisition exploration of the runway in the determination of contrast effects in the rat.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971,75, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Wolach, A. H., &Latta, K. Reward magnitude shifts in turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans).Psychological Record, 1974,24, 237–241.Google Scholar
  284. Wolach, A. H., Raymond, B., &Hurst, J. W. Reward magnitude shifts with goldfish.Psychological Record, 1973,23, 371–376.Google Scholar
  285. Woods, P. J. Performance changes in escape conditioning following shifts in the magnitude of reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967,75, 487–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Woodworth, R. S., &Schlosberg, H. Experimental psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehait, and Winston, 1954.Google Scholar
  287. Zeaman, D. Response latency as a function of the amount of reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1949,39, 466–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles F. Flaherty
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentRutgers UniversityNew Brunswick

Personalised recommendations