Perception & Psychophysics

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 121–128 | Cite as

Masking of alphabetic character recognition by dynamic visual noise (DVN)

  • William R. Uttal
Article

Abstract

The recognition of alphabetic characters composed of dot patterns is interfered with by dynamic visual noise (DVN) composed of similar dots randomly plotted over the character field. In this study we examine the general ability of the visual system to defect test characters as the level of this DVN varies. Three experiments are performed. The first deals with the effect of the DVN when the characters are embedded in continuous bursts of the noise, while the second and third examine the effects of leading and trading bursts of the DVN on character recognizability. Though the applicability of this paradigm to psychological questions is very brood, we concentrate on the problems of the channel capacity of the visual system and the persistence of the effects. The time course of the psychological instant is also considered.

References

  1. ALPERN, M. Metacontrast. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1953, 43, 648–657.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. BAXT, N. Über die Zeit welche notig ist, damit ein Gesichtseindruck zum Bewusstsein kommt und über die Grösse (Extension) der bewussten Wahrnehmung bei einem Gesichtseindrucke von gegenbener Dauer. Pfluger’s Archjv für die gesamte Physiologie, 1871,4, 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CRAWFORD, B. H. Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1947, 134B, 283–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. FRAISSE, P. Visual perceptive simultaneity and masking of letters successively presented. Perception & Psychophysics, 1966, 1, 285–287.Google Scholar
  5. KAHNEMAN, D. An onset-onset law for one case of apparent motion and metacontrast. Perception & Psychophysics, 1967, 2, 577–584.Google Scholar
  6. KOLERS, P. A. Intensity and contour effects in visual masking. Vision Research, 1962, 2, 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. KOLERS, P. A., & ROSNER, B. S. On visual masking (metacontrast) dichoptic observation. American Journal of Psychology, 1960, 73, 2–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. LICHTENSTEIN, M. Phenomena] simultaneity with irregular timing of components of the visual stimulus. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 1961, 12, 47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. MacKAY, D. M. Ways of looking at perception. In W. Wathen-Dunn (Ed.),Models for the perception of speech and visual form. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1967. Pp. 25–43.Google Scholar
  10. PIERON, H.The sensations: Their functions, processes and mechanisms. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  11. RAAB, D. H. Backward masking. Psychological Bulletin, 1963, 60, 118–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. SCHILLER, P. H. Monoptic and dichoptic visual masking by patterns and flashes. Journal of Experimental Psydiology, 1965, 69, 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. SCHILLER, P. H. Forward and backward masking as a function of relative overlap and intensity of test and masking stimuli. Perception & Psychophysics, 1966, 1, 161–164.Google Scholar
  14. SPERLING, G. A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, February 1963, 19-31.Google Scholar
  15. STROUD, J. The fine structure of psychological time. In H. Quastler (Ed.),Information theory in psychology. New York: Free Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  16. WEISSTEIN, N., & HABER, R. N. A U-shaped backward masking function in vision. Psychonomie Science, 1965, 2, 75–76.Google Scholar

References Added In Proof

  1. ALLPORT, D. A. Phenomenal simultaneity and the perceptual moment hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology, 1968, 59, 395–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. FRENCH, R. S. Pattern recognition in the presence of visual noise. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1954, 47, 27–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. KINSBOURNE, M., & WARRINGTON, E. K. The effect of an afteroming random pattern on the perception of brief visual stimuli. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962, 14, 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. KINSBOURNE, M., & WARRINGTON, E. K. Further studies on the masking of brief visual stimuli by a random pattern. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962, 14, 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. MAYZNER, M. S., TRESSELT, M. E., & HELFER, M. S. A provisional model of visual information processing with sequential inputs. Psychonomie Monograph Supplements, 1967, 2, 91–108 (Whole No. 23).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Uttal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations