Advertisement

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 271–276 | Cite as

Remembering words not presented in lists: Can we avoid creating false memories?

  • David A. Gallo
  • Meredith J. Roberts
  • John G. Seamon
Brief Reports

Abstract

Can subjects avoid creating false memories as outlined in Roediger and McDermott’s (1995) false recognition paradigm if they are forewarned about this memory illusion? We presented subjects with semantically related word lists, followed by a recognition test. The test was composed of studied words, semantically related nonstudied words (critical lures), and unrelated nonstudied words. One group of subjects was uninformed about the false recognition effect, a second group was urged to minimize all false alarms, and a third group was forewarned about falsely recognizing critical lures. Compared with the uninformed and cautious subjects, the forewarned subjects reduced their false alarm rate for critical lures, and they made remember and know judgments equally often for recognized studied words and critical lures. But forewarning did not eliminate the false recognition effect, as these subjects and those in the other groups made numerous false recognitions in this task.

Keywords

False Alarm False Alarm Rate Recognition Test False Memory Study List 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bartlett, F. C. (1932).Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Craik, F. I. M., &Watkins, M. J. (1973). The role of rehearsal in short-term memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,12, 599–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Freyd, J. J., &Gleaves, D. H. (1996). “Remembering” words not presented in lists: Relevance to the current recovered/false memory controversy.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 811–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gregory, R. L. (1987). Illusions. In R. L. Gregory (Ed.),The Oxford companion to the mind (pp. 337–347). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories.American Psychologist,48, 518–537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 212–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Munsterberg, H. (1908).On the witness stand: Essays on psychology and crime. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  9. Payne, D. G., Elie, C. J., Blackwell, J. M., &Neuschatz, J. S. (1996). Memory illusions: Recalling, recognizing, and recollecting events that never occurred.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 261–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rajaram, S. (1993). Remembering and knowing: Two means of access to the personal past.Memory & Cognition,21, 89–102.Google Scholar
  11. Read, J. D. (1996). From a passing thought to a false memory in 2 minutes: Confusing real and illusory events.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 105–111.Google Scholar
  12. Roediger, H. L., III (1996). Memory illusions.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 76–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1996). False perceptions of false memories.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 814–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schacter, D. L., Verfaellie, M., &Pradere, D. (1996). The neuropsychology of memory illusions: False recall and recognition in amnesic patients.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness.Canadian Psychologist,26, 1–12.Google Scholar
  17. Underwood, B. J. (1965). False recognition produced by implicit verbal responses.Journal of Experimental Psychology,70, 122–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Gallo
    • 1
  • Meredith J. Roberts
    • 1
  • John G. Seamon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWesleyan UniversityMiddletown

Personalised recommendations