In a series of four experiments, the effects of the reactivation of an old memory in different states of vigilance were investigated. Rats were trained to run in a six-unit spatial discrimination maze for food reward with low-level electrical stimulation delivered to the ear when they entered blind alleys. Twenty-five days after training, electrotactile stimulation was given to animals as a reactivating treatment just before a retention test. When the cuing treatment was given during wakefulness, retention performance was improved. When it was given in slow-wave sleep, it had no effect. When it was given in paradoxical sleep, performance was poorer. The use of control groups permitted an assessment of the specificity of the cuing effect in each case: Pretest presentation of the same stimulus did not modify performance when it had no cue value. Together, these results show that the effect of the reactivation of an old memory depends upon the vigilance state in which reactivation takes place. They suggest that reorganization of an old memory could be accomplished during paradoxical sleep.
Bloch, V., Hennevin, E., &Leconte, P. (1979). Relationship between paradoxical sleep and memory processes. In M. A. Brazier (Eds.),Brain mechanisms in memory and learning from the single neuron to man. New York: Raven Press.
Ciancia, F., Trigona-Leisinger, M. C., &Bloch, V. (1980). Etude, chezle chat, de la réactivité aux stimulus auditifs signifiants en fonction des niveaux de vigilance.Archives Italiennes de Biologie,118, 375–385.
Crick, F., &Mitchison, G. (1983). The function of dream sleep.Nature,304, 111–114.
Dekeyne, A., Deweer, B., &Sara, S. (1987). Background stimuli as a reminder after spontaneous forgetting: Potentiation by stimulation of the mesencephalic reticular formation.Psychobiology,15, 161–166.
Devietti, T. L., &Kirkpatrick, B. R. (1976). The amnesia gradient: inadequate as evidence for a memory consolidation process.Science,194, 438–440.
Deweer, B., &Sara, S. J. (1984). Background stimuli as a reminder after spontaneous forgetting: Role of duration of cuing and cuing-test interval.Animal Learning & Behavior,12, 238–247.
Deweer, B., Sara, S. J., &Hars, B. (1980). Contextual cues and memory retrieval in rats: Alleviation of forgetting by a pretest exposure to background stimuli.Animal Learning & Behavior,8, 265–272.
Fishbein, W., &Gutwein, B. M. (1977). Paradoxical sleep and memory storage processes.Behavioral Biology,19, 425–464.
Gatti, S. V., Pais, N., &Weeks, J. R. (1975), Effect of reinstatement procedure on retention of differential appetitive responding.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,6, 57–60.
Gauthier, P., Hammon, J. F., &Gottesmann, C. (1986). Etude de la variation contingente negative et des composantes tardives des potentiels évoqués au cours du sommeil chez l’homme.Revue d’EEG et de Neurophysiologie Clinique,15, 323–330.
Gisquet-Verrier, P., Dekeyne, A., &Alexinsky, T. (1989). Differential effect of retrieval cues over time: Evidence for time reorganization of memory.Animal Learning & Behavior,17, 394–408.
Gleitman, H. (1971). Forgetting of long-term memories in animals. In W. K. Honig & P. H. R. James (Eds),Animal memory. New York: Academic Press.
Gordon, W. C. (1983). Malleability of memory in animals. In R. L. Mellgren (Ed.),Animal cognition & behavior. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Halperin, J. M., &Iorio, L. C. (1981). Responsivity of rats to neutral and danger-signalling stimuli during sleep.Behavioral & Neural Biology,33, 213–219.
Hars, B., &Hennevin, E. (1987). Impairment of learning by cueing during postlearning slow-wave sleep in rats.Neuroscience Letters,79, 290–294.
Hars, B., Hennevin, E., &Pasques, P. (1985). Improvement of learning by cueing during postlearning paradoxical sleep.Behavioural Brain Research,18, 241–250.
Heine, R. (1914). Uber wiedererkennen und ruckwirkende Hemmung.Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane,68, 161–236.
Hennevin, E., &Hars, B. (1985). Post-learning paradoxical sleep: A critical period when new memory is reactivated? In B. E. Will, P. Schmitt, J. C. Dalrymple-Alford (Eds),Brain plasticity, learning and memory. New York: Plenum.
Hennevin, E., Hars, B., &Bloch, V. (1989). Improvement of learning by mesencephalic reticular stimulation during postlearning paradoxical sleep.Behavioral & Neural Biology,51, 291–306.
Hennevin, E., &Leconte, P. (1977). Etude des relations entre le sommeil paradoxal et les processus d’acquisition.Physiology & Behavior,18, 307–319.
Jenkins, J. G., &Dallenbach, K. M. (1924). Obliviscence during sleep and waking.American Journal of Psychology,35, 605–612.
Judge, M. E., &Quartermain, D. (1982). Characteristics of retrograde amnesia following reactivation of memory in mice.Physiology & Behavior,28, 585–590.
Lewis, D. J. (1969). Sources of experimental amnesia.Psychological Review,76, 461–472.
Lewis, D. J. (1979). Psychobiology of active and inactive memory.Psychological Bulletin,86, 1054–1083.
Mactutus, C. F., Ferek, J. M., George, C. A., &Riccio, D. C. (1982). Hypothermia-induced amnesia for newly acquired and old reactivated memories: Commonalities and distinctions.Physiological Psychology,10, 79–85.
Mactutus, C. F., Riccio, D. C., &Ferek, J. M. (1979). Retrograde amnesia for old (reactivated) memory: Some anomalous characteristics.Science,204, 1319–1320.
Maki, W. S. (1986). Distinguishing between new and used traces: Differential effects of electroconvulsive shock on memories for places presented and places passed.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,388, 397–423.
Mandai, O., Guerrien, P., Sockeel, P., Dujardin, K., &Leconte, P. (1989). REM sleep modifications following a morse code learning session in humans.Physiology & Behavior,46, 639–642.
McGrath, M. J., &Cohen, D. B. (1978). REM sleep facilitation of adaptative waking behavior: A review of the literature.Psychological Bulletin,85, 24–57.
Miller, R. R., Kasprow, W. S., &Schachtman, T. R. (1969). Retrieval variability: Sources and consequences.American Journal of Psychology,99, 145–218.
Mowrer, R. R., &Gordon, W. C. (1983). Effects of cuing in an “irrelevant” context.Animal Learning & Behavior,11, 401–406.
Pearlman, C. A. (1979). REM sleep and information processing: Evidence from animal studies.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews,3, 57–68.
Sara, S. J., Deweer, B., &Hars, B. (1980). Reticular stimulation facilitates retrieval of a “forgotten” maze habit.Neuroscience Letters,18, 211–217.
Sasaki, H., &Yoshii, N. (1984). Conditioned responses in the visual cortex of dogs during sleep.Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology,58, 448–456.
Smith, C. (1985). Sleep states and learning: A review of the animal literature.Neuroscience Behavioral Review,9, 157–168.
Spear, N. E. (1973). Retrieval of memory in animals.Psychological Review,80, 163–194.
Spear, N. E. (1978).The processing of memories: Forgetting and retention. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Timo-Iaria, C., Negrad, N., Schmidek, W. R., Hoshino, K., Menezes, C. E., &Da Rocha, T. L. (1970). Phases and states of sleep in the rat.Physiology & Behavior,5, 1057–1062.
Van Ormer, E. B. (1932). Retention after intervals of sleep and of waking.Archives of Psychology,137, 5–49.
Van Twyver, H., &Garrett, N. (1972). Arousal threshold in the rat determined by “meaningful” stimuli.Behavioral Biology,7, 205–215.
About this article
Cite this article
Hars, B., Hennevin, E. Reactivation of an old memory during sleep and wakefulness. Animal Learning & Behavior 18, 365–376 (1990). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03205318
- Memory Trace
- Retention Test
- Paradoxical Sleep
- Vigilance State
- Retention Performance