Perception & Psychophysics

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 117–124 | Cite as

Wrinkling and head shape as coordinated sources of age-level information

  • Leonard S. Mark
  • John B. Pittenger
  • Helen Hines
  • Claudia Carello
  • Robert E. Shaw
  • James T. Todd
Article
  • 422 Downloads

Abstract

Changes in the shape of a human head and the development of facial wrinkles were examined as potential sources of information about age level. In Experiment 1, subjects estimated the ages of faces that had been produced by systematically manipulating characteristic head shapes and levels of wrinkles associated with ages 15, 30, 50, and 70 years. The results indicated that observers used both sources of craniofacial change in making age estimates; but the effect of either source of change on perceived age depended upon the level of the other source of change. In Experiment 2, subjects’ ratings of the apparent conflict between levels of head shape and wrinkles further substantiated the conclusion that observers are sensitive to the coordination of products of the two sources of change. These findings suggest that the information specifying perceived age level is a complexrelationship among different types of craniofacial change.

References

  1. Brunswik, E.Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956.Google Scholar
  2. Enlow, D.The human face: An account of the postnatal growth and development of the craniofacial skeleton. New York: Hoeber Medical Division, Harper & Row, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. Gibson, J. J.The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Hogarth, B.Drawing the human head. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Kohn, R. R.Principles of mammalian aging. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1971.Google Scholar
  6. Mark, L. S.A transformational approach toward understanding the perception of growing faces. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Connecticut, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. Moore, W. J., &Lavelle, C. L. B.Growth of the facial skeleton in the hominoidea. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. Pick, J. F.Surgery of repair: Principles, problems and practice. London: Lippincott, 1949.Google Scholar
  9. Pittenger, J. B., &Shaw, R. E. Aging faces as viscal-elastic events: Implications for a theory of nonrigid shape perception.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975,1, 374–382.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Pittinger, J. B., Shaw, R. E., &Mark, L. S. Perceptual information for the age-level of faces as a higher-order invariant of growth.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1979,5, 478–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shaw, R. E., Turvey, M. T., & Mace, W. Ecological psychology: The consequence of a commitment to realism. In W. Weimer & D. Palermo (Eds.),Cognition and the symbolic processes II. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, in press.Google Scholar
  12. Todd, J. T., Mark, L. S., Shaw, R. E., & Pittenger. J. B. The perception of growth.Scientific American, in press.Google Scholar
  13. Turvey, M. T., &Shaw, R. E. The primacy of perceiving: An ecological reformulation of perception as a point of departure for understanding memory. In L.-G. Nilsson (Ed.),Perspectives on memory research: Essays in honor of Uppsala University’s 500th anniversary. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  14. Viidik, A. Functional properties of collagenous tissues. In D. A. Hall & D. S. Jackson (Eds.),International review of connective tissue research (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard S. Mark
    • 2
  • John B. Pittenger
    • 1
  • Helen Hines
    • 1
  • Claudia Carello
    • 2
  • Robert E. Shaw
    • 2
  • James T. Todd
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArkansasLittle Rock
  2. 2.Psychology Department, U-20University of ConnecticutStorrs

Personalised recommendations