Perception & Psychophysics

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 183–228 | Cite as

Iconic memory and visible persistence

  • Max Coltheart


There are three senses in which a visual stimulus may be said to persist psychologically for some time after its physical offset. First, neural activity in the visual system evoked by the stimulus may continue after stimulus offset (“neural persistence”). Second, the stimulus may continue to be visible for some time after its offset (“visible persistence”). Finally, information about visual properties of the stimulus may continue to be available to an observer for some time after stimulus offset (“informational persistence”). These three forms of visual persistence are widely assumed to reflect a single underlying process: a decaying visual trace that (1) consists of afteractivity in the visual system, (2) is visible, and (3) is the source of visual information in experiments on decaying visual memory. It is argued here that this assumption is incorrect. Studies of visible persistence are reviewed; seven different techniques that have been used for investigating visible persistence are identified, and it is pointed out that numerous studies using a variety of techniques have demonstrated two fundamental properties of visible persistence: theinverse duration effect (the longer a stimulus lasts, the shorter is its persistence after stimulus offset) and theinverse intensity effect (the more intense the stimulus, the briefer its persistence). Only when stimuli are so intense as to produce afterimages do these two effects fail to occur. Work on neural persistences is briefly reviewed; such persistences exist at the photoreceptor level and at various stages in the visual pathways. It is proposed that visible persistence depends upon both of these types of neural persistence; furthermore, there must be an additional neural locus, since a purely stereoscopic (and hence cortical) form of visible persistence exists. It is argued that informational persistence is defined by the use of the partial report methods introduced by Averbach and Coriell (1961) and Sperling (1960), and the term “iconic memory” is used to describe this form of persistence. Several studies of the effects of stimulus duration and stimulus intensity upon the duration of iconic memory have been carried out. Their results demonstrate that the duration of iconic memory is not inversely related to stimulus duration or stimulus intensity. It follows that informational persistence or iconic memory cannot be identified with visible persistence, since they have fundamentally different properties. One implication of this claim that one cannot investigate iconic memory by tasks that require the subject to make phenomenological judgments about the duration of a visual display. In other words, the so-called “direct methods” for studying iconic memory do not provide information about iconic memory. Another implication is that iconic memory is not intimately tied to processes going on in the visual system (as visible persistence is); provided a stimulus is adequately legible, its physical parameters have little influence upon its iconic memory. The paper concludes by pointing out that there exists an alternative to the usual view of iconic memory as a precategorical sensory buffer. According to this alternative, iconic memory is post-categorical, occurring subsequent to stimulus identification. Here, stimulus identification is considered to be a rapid automatic process which does not require buffer storage, but which provides no information about episodic properties of a visual stimulus. Information about these physical stimulus properties must, in some way, be temporarily attached to a representation of the stimulus in semantic memory; and it is this temporarily attached physical information which constitutes iconic memory.


Stimulus Duration Durable Storage Visible Persistence Iconic Memory Partial Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Mollon, 1.Two approaches to the perceptual moment hypothesis. Paper presented at the meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, Oxford, England, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fox, R., Lehmkuhle, S., & Shea, S.iconic memory in stereoscopic space: Seeing without storing. Paper presented at the 18th Annual Psychonomic Society meeting, SI. Louis, Mo., 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adelson, E. H., & 1onides, 1.The psychophysics of iconic storage. Paper presented at the Psychonornic Society meeting S1. Louis, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allport, D. A.Word recognition and reading. Paper presented at the meeting on Processing of Visible Language, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allport, D. A.Word recognition and the recognition buffer. Paper presented at the meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, London, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marcel, A. 1.Perception with and without awareness. Paper presented at the meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society. Stirling, Scm land. 1974.Google Scholar


  1. Adelson, E. H. Iconic storage: The role of rods.Science, 1978,201, 544–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar, M., &Stiles, W. S. Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation.Optica Acta, 1954,1, 59–65.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, D. A.Studies in the psychological unit of duration. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, D. A. Temporal summation and phenomenal simultaneity: Experiments with the radius display.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,22, 686–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allport, D. A. On knowing the meanings of words we are unable to report: The effects of visual masking. In S. Dornic (Ed.),Attention and performance VI. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. Alpern, M., &Barh, L. Durations of the afterimages of brief light flashes and the theory of the Broca and Sulzer phenomenon.Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1962,52, 219–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreewsky, E., Deloche, G., & Kossanyi, P. Analogies between speed reading and deep dyslexia (Towards a procedural understanding of reading). In M. Coltheart, K. Patterson, & J. C. Marshall (Eds.),Deep dyslexia. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, in press.Google Scholar
  8. Anstis, S. M., &Atkinson, J. Distortions in moving figures viewed through a stationary slit.American Journal of Psychology, 1967,80, 572–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnett, J. L., & Di Lollo, V. Visual information processing in relation to age and reading ability.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, in press.Google Scholar
  10. Averbach, E., &Coriell, A. S. Short-term memory in vision.Bell Systems Technical Journal, 1961,40, 309–328.Google Scholar
  11. Averbach, E., &Sperling, G. Short-term storage of information in vision. In C. Cherry (Ed.),Information theory. London: Butterworth, 1961.Google Scholar
  12. Banks, W. P., &Bahber, G. Color information in iconic memory.Psychological Review, 1977,84, 536–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartlett, N. R., Sticht, T. G., &PZease, V. P. Effects of wavelength and retinal locus on the reaction time to onset and offset stimulation.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,78, 699–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowen, R. W., Pola, J., &Matin, L. Visual persistence: Effects of flash luminance, duration and energy.Vision Research, 1974,14, 295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breitmeyer, B. Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels.Vision Research, 1975,15, 1411–1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bheitmeyer, B., &Ganz, L. Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels.Vision Research, 1977,17, 861–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Breitmeyer, B., &Julesz, B. The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response.Vision Research, 1975,15, 411–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Briggs, G. G., &Kinsbourne, M. Visual persistence as measured by reaction time.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972,24, 318–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carpenter, P. A., &Ganz, L. An attentional mechanism in the analysis of spatial frequency.Perception & Psychophysics, 1972,12, 57–60.Google Scholar
  20. Clark, S. E. Retrieval of color information from preperceptual memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,82, 263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cleland, B. G., Levick, W. R., &Sanderson, K. J. Properties of sustained and transient ganglion cells in the cat retina.Journal of Physiology, 1973,228, 649–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, G., &Martin, M. Hemisphere differences in an auditory Stroop task.Percpetion & Psychophysics, 1975,17, 79–83.Google Scholar
  23. Cohene, L. S. Iconic memory of dot patterns: Preliminary report.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1975,41, 167–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coltheart, M. Visual information-processing. In P. C. Dodwell, (Ed.),New horizons in psychology. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1972.Google Scholar
  25. Coltiieart, M. Coiour-specificitv and monocularuv in the visual cortex.Vision Research, 1973,13, 2595–2598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coltiieart, M. Iconic memory: A reply to Professor Holding.Memory & Cognition, 1975,3, 42–48. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coltiieart, M. Doubts about iconic memory: A reply to Holding.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975,27, 511–512. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coltheart, M. Contemporary models of the cognitive processes. 1: Information input and storage. In V Hamilton & M. D. Vernon (Eds.),The development of cognitive processes. London: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  29. Coltheart, M. Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.).Strategies of information-processing, London: Academic Press, 1978. (a)Google Scholar
  30. Coltheart, M. The internal lexicon and its access during reading. In J. P. Sutcliffe (Ed.),Conceptual analysis and method in psvchology. Sydney: University Press, 1978. (b)Google Scholar
  31. Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E..Jonasson, J. T., &Hesner, D. Access 10 the internal lexicon. In S. Dornic (Ed.),Attention and performance VI. New York: Erlhaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. Coltiieart, M., Lea, C. D.. &Thompson, K. In defence of iconic memory.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974,26, 633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cumming, G. D.Visual perception and metacontrast at rapia input rates. Unpublished D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. Demkiw, P., &Miciiaels, C. Motion information in iconic memory.Acta Psychologica, 1976,40, 257–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dick, A. O. Relations between the sensory register and short-term storage in tachistoscopic recognition.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,82, 279–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dick, A. O. Visual processing and the use of redundant information in tachistoscopic recognition.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1970,24, 133–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Di Lollo, V. Temporal characteristics of iconic memory.Nature, 1977,267, 241–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Di Lollo, V. On the spatio-temporal interactions of brief visual displays. In R. H. Day & G. V. Stanley (Eds.),Studies in perception. Perth: University of Western Australia Press, 1978Google Scholar
  39. Di Lollo, V. Temporal integration in visual memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, in press.Google Scholar
  40. Di Lollo, V., &Wilson, A. E. Iconic persistence and perceptual moment as determinants of temporal integration in vision.Vision Research, 1978,18, 1607–1610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dixon, N. F., &Hammond, J. The attenuation of visual persistence.British Journal of Psychology, 1972,63, 243–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Efhon, R. Stereoscopic vision—I: Effect of binocular summation.British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1957,41, 709–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Efron, R. The relationship between the duration of a stimulus and the duration of a perception.Neuropsychologia, 1970,8, 37–55. (a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Efron, R. The minimum duration of a perception.Neuropsychologia, 1970,8, 57–63. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Efhon, R. Effect of stimulus duration on perceptual onset and offset latencies.Perception & Psychophysics, 1970,8, 231–234. (c)Google Scholar
  46. Efron, R. An invariant characteristic of perceptual systems in the time domain. In S. Kornblum (Ed.),Attention and performance I V. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  47. Efhon, R., &Lee, D.N. The visual persistence of a moving stroboscopically illuminated object.American Journal of Psychology, 1971,84, 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Engel, G. R. An investigation of visual responses to brief stereoscopic stimuli.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,22, 148–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eriksen, B. A., &Eriksen, C. W. Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task.Perception & Psychophysics, 1974,16, 143–149,Google Scholar
  50. Eriksen, C. W., &Collins, J. F. Some temporal characteristics of visual pattern perception.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967,74, 476–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Eriksen, C. W., &Collins, J. F. Sensory traces versus the psychological moment in the temporal organization of form.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,77, 376–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eriksen, C. W., &Rohrbaugh, J. W. Visual masking in multi-element displays.Journal of Experimental Psvchology, 1970,83, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fain, G. L., &Dowling, J. E. Intracellular recordings from single rods and cones in the mudpuppy retina.Science, 1973,180, 1178–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fehrer, E., &Raab, D. Reaction time to stimuli masked by metacontrast.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962,63, 143–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gelijard, F.The human senses. New York: Wiley, 1953.Google Scholar
  56. Haber, R. N., &Nathanson, L. S. Post-retinal storage? Some further observations on Parks’ camel as seen through the eye of a needle.Perception & Psychophysics, 1968,3, 349–355.Google Scholar
  57. Haber, R. N., &Standing, L. Direct measures of short-term visual storage.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969,21, 43–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haber, R. N., &Standing, L. Direct estimates of the apparent duration of a flash.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1970,24, 216–229.Google Scholar
  59. Hogben, J. H., &Di Lollo, V. Perceptual integration and perceptual segregation of brief visual stimuli.Vision Research, 1974,14, 1059–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holding, D. H. Guessing behavior and the Sperling store.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,22, 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Holding, D. H. Brief visual memory for English and Arabic letters.Psychonomic Science, 1972,28, 241–242.Google Scholar
  62. Holding, D. H. Recognition tests of visual information storage.British Journal of Psychology, 1973,64, 9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Holding, D. H. Doubts about iconic memory: A reply to Coltheart, Lea and Thompson.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975,27, 507–509. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Holding, D. H. Sensory storage revisited.Memory & Cognition, 1975,3, 31–41. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hunter, W. S., &Sigler, M. The span of visual discrimination as a function of time and intensity of stimulation.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1940,26, 160–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Julesz, B.Foundations of cyclopean perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  67. Julesz, B., &Chiarucci, E. Short-term memory for stroboscopic movement perception.Perception, 1973,2, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kahneman, D., &Norman, J. The time-intensity relation in visual perception as a function of observer’s task.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1964,68, 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keele, S. W., &Chase, W. G. Short-term visual storage.Perception & Psychophysics, 1967,2, 383–386.Google Scholar
  70. Kulikowski, J. J. Human averaged occipital potentials evoked by pattern and movement.Journal of Physiology, 1974,242, 70–71.Google Scholar
  71. Kulikowski, J. J. Visual evoked potentials as a measure of visibility. In J. E. Desmedt (Ed.),Visual evoked potentials in man: New developments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  72. Kulikowski, J. J., &Tolhurst, D. J. Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient channels in human vision.Journal of Physiology, 1973,232, 149–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Legrand, Y.Light, colour and vision. London: Chapman and Hall, 1957.Google Scholar
  74. Levine, D. N., &Calvanio, R. A study of the visual defect in verbal alexia-sirnultanagnosia.Brain, 1978,101, 65–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lowe, D. G. Temporal aspects of selective masking.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975,27, 375–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mackworth, J. The duration of the visual image.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1963,17, 62–81.Google Scholar
  77. Makous, W., &Boothe, R. Cones block signals from rods.Vision Research, 1974,14, 285–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mavzner, M. S., &Tresselt, M. E. Visual information processing with sequential inputs: A general model for sequential blanking, displacement, and overprinting phenomenaAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1970,169, 599–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meyer, G. E. The effects of color-specific adaptation on the perceived duration of gratings.Vision Research, 1977,17, 51–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meyer, G. E., Lawson, R. L., &Cohen, W. The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage.Vision Research, 1975,15, 569–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meyer, G. E., &Maguire, W. M. Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage.Science, 1977,198, 524–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mollon, J., &Polden.P. On the time constants of tachisto-scopes.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1978,30, 555–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morton, J. Interaction of information in word recognition.Psychological Review, 1969,76, 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Neisser, U.Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  85. Norman, R. A., &Werblin, F. S. Control of retinal sensitivity: I. Light and dark adaptation of vertebrate rods and cones.Journal of General Physiology, 1974,63, 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ogle, K. N. Stereoscopic depth perception and exposure delays between images in the two eyes.Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1963,53, 1296–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parker, D. M., &Salzen, E. A. Latency changes in the human visual evoked response to sinusoidal gratings.Vision Research, 1977,17, 1201–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Parks, T. E. Post-retinal visual storage.American Journal of Psychology, 1965,78, 145–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pease, V. P., &Sticht, T. G. Reaction time as a function of onset and offset stimulation of the fovea and periphery.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1965,20, 549–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Penn, R. D., &Hagins, W. A. Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods.Biophysics, 1972,12, 1073–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Phillips, W. A., &Singer, W. Function and interaction of on and off transients in vision. I: Psychophysics.Experimental Brain Research, 1974,19, 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pollack.I. Visual discrimination of “unseen” objects: Forced-choice testing of Mayzner-Tresselt sequential blanking effects.Perception & Psychophysics, 1972,11, 121–128.Google Scholar
  93. Pollack, I. Interaction effects in successive visual displays: An extension of the Eriksen-Collins paradigm.Perception & P5ychophysics, 1973,13, 367–373.Google Scholar
  94. Rains, J. D. Reaction time to onset and cessation of a visual stimulus.Psychological Record, 1961,11, 265–268.Google Scholar
  95. Ross, J., &Hogben, J. H. Short-term memory in stereopsis,Vision Research, 1974,14, 1195–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Russell, R. J. H.Temporal coding in iconic memory. Unpublished D.Phil, thesis, University of Oxford, 1977.Google Scholar
  97. Sakitt, B. Locus of short-term visual storage.Science, 1975,190, 1318–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sakitt, B. Iconic memory.Psychological Review, 1976,83, 257–276. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sakitt, B. Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity.Vision Research, 1976,16, 129–140. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sakitt, B., &Appelman, J. B. The effects of memory load and the contrast of the rod signal on partial report superiority in a Sperling task.Memory & Cognition, 1978,6, 562–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sakitt, B., &Long, G. M. Relative rod and cone contributions to iconic storage.Perception & Psychophysics, 1978,23, 527–536.Google Scholar
  102. Sakitt, B., &Long, G. M. Spare the rod and spoil the icon.Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance, 1979,5, 19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Scharf, B., &Lefton, L. A. Backward and forward masking as a function of stimulus and task parameters.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,84, 331–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Serviere, J., Miceli, D., &Galifret, Y. A psychophysical study of the visual perception of “instantaneous” and “durable.”Vision Research, 1977,17, 57–63. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Serviere, J., Miceli, D., &Galifret, Y. Electrophysiological correlates of the visual perception of “instantaneous” and “durable.”Vision Research, 1977,17, 65–69. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shallice, T. The detection of change and the perceptual moment hypothesis.British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 1964,17, 113–135.Google Scholar
  107. Shallice, T., &Warrington, E. K. The possible role of selective attention in acquired dyslexia.Neuropsychologia, 1977,15, 31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Singer, W. Temporal aspects of subcortical contrast processing.Neurosciences Research Programme Bulletin, 1977,15, 358–369.Google Scholar
  109. Singer, W., &Phillips, W. A. Function and interaction of on and off transients in vision. II. Neurophysiology.Experimental Brain Research, 1974,19, 507–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sperling, G. The information available in brief visual presentations.Psychological Monographs, 1960,74, 1–29.Google Scholar
  111. Sperling, G. Successive approximations to a model for short-term memory.Acta Psychologia, 1967,27, 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stabell, D., &Stabell, B. Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision.Vision Research, 1976,16, 1433–1437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stanley, G. Visual information processing and specific reading disability (dyslexia). In R. H. Day & G. Stanley (Eds.),Studies in perception. Perth: University of Western Australia Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  114. Stanley, G., &Hall, R. Short-term visual information processing in dyslexics.Child Development, 1973,44, 341–344.Google Scholar
  115. Stanley, G., &Molloy, M. Retinal painting and visual information storage.Acca Psychologica, 1975,39, 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steinberg, R. H. The rod after-effect in S-potentials from the cat retina.Vision Research, 1969,9, 1345–1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stroud, J. M.The moment function hypothesis. M.A. thesis, Stanford University, 1948.Google Scholar
  118. Stroud, J. M. The fine structure of psychological time. In H. Quastler (Ed.),Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  119. Townsend, V. M. Loss of spatial and identity information following a tachistoscopic exposure.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973,98, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Treisman, A. M. Contextual cues in selective listening.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1960,12, 242–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Treisman, A. M., Russell, R., &Green, J. Brief visual storage of shape and movement. In P. M. A. Rabbitt & S. Dornic (Eds.),Attention and performance V. London: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  122. Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson (Eds.),Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  123. Turvey, M. T. On peripheral and central processes in vision.Psychological Review, 1973,80, 1–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Turvey, M. T. Visual processing and short-term memory. In W. K. Estes (Ed.),Handbook of learning and cognitive processes (Vol. 5). Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  125. Turvey, M. T., &Kravetz, S. Retrieval from iconic and memory with shape as the selection criterion.Perception & Psychophysics, 1970,8, 171–172.Google Scholar
  126. Van Der Heijden, A. H. C.Short-term visual information forgetting, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leiden, The Netherlands, 1978.Google Scholar
  127. Vassilev, A., &Mitov, D. Perception time and spatial frequency.Vision Research, 1976,16, 89–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Von Wright, J. M. Selection in immediate visual memory.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968,20, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wade, N. J. Some perceptual effects generated by rotating gratings.Perception, 1974,3, 169–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wassle, H., Levick, W. R., &Cleland, B. G. The distribution of the alpha type of ganglion cells in the eat’s retinaJournal of Comparative Neurology, 1975,159,419–4377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Westheimer, G. The Maxwellian view.Vision Research, 1966,6, 669–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Whitten, D. N., &Brown, K. T. The time courses of late receptor potentials from monkey cones and rods.Vision Research, 1973,13, 107–135. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Whitten, D. N., &Brown, K. T. Photopic suppression of monkey’; rod receptor potential, apparently by a cone-initiated lateral inhibition.Vision Research, 1973,13, 1629–1658. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Whitten, D. N., &Brown, K. T. Slowed decay of the monkey’s cone receptor potential by intense stimuli, and protection from this effect by light adaptation.Vision Research, 1973,13, 1659–1667. (c)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max Coltheart
    • 1
  1. 1.Birkbeck CollegeLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations