Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 549–562 | Cite as

Dissociations among memory measures in memory-impaired subjects: Evidence for a processing account of memory

  • Teresa A. Blaxton
Article

Abstract

Deficits in conceptual transfer on both implicit and explicit memory tests were obtained for memory-impaired temporal lobe epileptic (TLE) subjects in three studies. In Experiment 1, in which a generate-read paradigm was employed, memory-impaired TLEs failed to show normal generation effects on conceptually driven tests of semantic cued recall and general knowledge questions, although their data-driven memory as measured by word-fragment completion and graphemic cued recall tasks was normal. In Experiment 2, memory-impaired patients having left temporal lobe seizure foci were tested on these four tasks and compared with nonimpaired TLEs having right temporal foci. The left TLEs showed deficits on conceptually driven tasks and normal memory for data-driven tests. These findings were extended in Experiment 3, in which left TLE patients failed to show any benefit from blocked study, as compared with random study, on category production and semantic cued-recall tests, although right TLEs and normal controls showed blocking effects on both tasks. These findings may be accommodated by a processing framework of memory in which memory-impaired patients are characterized as having deficits in conceptual, but not in data-driven, processing capabilities.

Keywords

Category Production Amnesic Patient General Knowledge Question Conceptual Transfer Nonstudied Item 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andrewes, D. G., Puce, A., &Bladin, P. F. (1990). Post-ictal recognition memory predicts laterality of temporal lobe seizure focus: Comparison with post-operative data.Neuropsychologia,28, 957–967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Battig, W. F., &Montague, W. E. (1969). Category norms for verbal items in 56 categories: A replication and extension of the Connecticut category norms.Journal of Experimental Psychology Monograph,80(3, Pt. 2), 1–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blaxton, T. (1989). Investigating dissociations among memory measure: Support for a transfer appropriate processing framework.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,15, 657–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaxton, T. (1992).The role of the temporal lobes in memory for nonverbal materials: Conceptual and data-driven transfer, Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  5. Bornstein, R. A., &Chelune, G. J. (1988). Factor structure of the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised.Clinical Neuropsychologist,2, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cermak, L. S. (1989). Synergistic ecphory and the amnesic patient. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.),Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving (pp. 121–131). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Cermak, L. S., &Butters, N. (1972). The role of interference and encoding in the short-term memory deficits of Korsakoff patients.Neuropsychologia,10, 89–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cermak, L. S., Butters, N., &Gerrein, J. (1973). The extent of the verbal encoding ability of Korsakoff patients.Neuropsychologia,11, 85–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cermak, L. S., Butters, N., &Moreines, J. (1974). Some analyses of the verbal encoding deficit of alcoholic Korsakoff patients.Brain & Language,1, 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cermak, L. S., Naus, M. J., &Reale, J. (1976). Rehearsal and organizational strategies of alcoholic Korsakoff patients.Brain & Language,3, 375–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cermak, L. S., Talbot, N., Chandler, K., &Wolbarst, L. R. (1985). The perceptual priming phenomenon in amnesia.Neuropsychologia,23, 615–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, N. J. (1984). Preserved learning capacity in amnesia: Evidence for multiple memory systems. In L. S. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.),Neuropsychology of memory (pp. 83–103). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Delaney, R. C., Rosen, A. J., Mattson, R. H., &Novelly, R. A. (1980). Memory function in focal epilepsy: A comparison of non-surgical unilateral temporal lobe and frontal lobe samples.Cortex,16, 103–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gardner, H., Boller, F., Moreines, J., &Butters, N. (1973). Retrieving information from Korsakoff patients: Effects of categorical cues and reference to the task.Cortex,9, 165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Graf, P., &Schacter, D. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Graf, P., Shimamura, A. P., &Squire, L. R. (1985). Priming across modalities and priming across category levels: Extending the domain of preserved function in amnesia.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 386–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graf, P., Squire, L. S., &Mandler, G. (1984). The information that amnesic patients do not forget.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,10, 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamann, S. (1990). Level-of-processing effects in conceptually driven implicit tasks.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,16, 970–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacoby, L. L. (1983). Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,22, 485–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, M. K., Kim, J. K., &Risse, G. (1985). Do alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome patients acquire affective reactions?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mayes, A. R., Meudell, P. R., &Pickering.A. (1985). Is organic amnesia caused by a selective deficit in remembering contextual information?Cortex,21, 167–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McAndrews, M. P., Glisky, E. L., &Schacter, D. L. (1987). When priming persists: Long-lasting implicit memory for a single episode in amnesic patients.Neuropsychologia,25, 497–506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Milner, B. (1967). Brain mechanisms suggested by studies of temporal lobes. In F. C. Darley (Ed.),Brain mechanisms underlying speech and language (pp. 122–132). New York & London: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  24. Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man.British Medical Bulletin,27, 272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Morris, C. D., Bransford, J. D., &Franks.J. J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,16, 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moscovitch, M. (1984). The sufficient conditions for demonstrating preserved memory in amnesia: A task analysis. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.),Neuropsychology of memory (pp. 104–114). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. Mungas, D., Ehlers, C., Walton, N., &McCutchen, C. B. (1985). Verbal learning differences in epileptic patients with left and right temporal foci.Epilepsia,246, 340–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Neely, J. H., &Payne, D. G. (1983). A direct comparison of recognition failure rates for recallable names in episodic and semantic memory tests.Memory & Cognition,11, 161–171.Google Scholar
  29. Nissen, M. J., Cohen, N. J., &Corkin, S. (1981). The amnesic H.M.: Learning and retention of perceptual skills.Society for Neurosciences Abstracts,7, 235.Google Scholar
  30. Poulos, C. X., &Wilkinson, D. A. (1984). A process theory of remembering: Its application to Korsakoff amnesia and a critique of context and episodic-semantic theories. In L. S. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.),Neuropsychology of memory (pp. 67–82). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Rappold, V. A., &Hashtroudi, S. (1991). Does organization improve priming?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,17, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Richakdson-Klavehn, A., &Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of memory.Annual Review of Psychology,39, 475–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roediger, H. L., III (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering.American Psychologist,45, 1043–1056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Roediger, H. L., III, &Blaxton, T. A. (1987a). Effects of varying modality, surface features, and retention interval on priming in word fragment completion.Memory & Cognition,15, 379–388.Google Scholar
  35. Roediger, H. L., III, &Blaxton, T. A. (1987b). Retrieval modes produce dissociations in memory for surface information. In D. S. Gorfein & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.),Memory and learning: The Ebbinghaus Centennial Conference (pp. 349–379). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Roediger, H. L., III,Srinivas, K., &Weldon, M. S. (1989). Dissociations between implicit measures of retention. In S. Lewandowsky, J. C. Dunn, & K. Kirsner (Eds.),implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 67–84). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Roediger, H. L., III,Weldon, M. S., &Challis, B. H. (1989). Explaining dissociatlons between implicit and explicit measures of retention: A processing account. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.),Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving (pp. 3–41). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Schacter, D. L. (1985). Priming of old and new knowledge in amnesic patients and normal subjects. In D. S.Olton, E. Gamzu, & S. Corkin (Eds.),Memory dysfunctions: An integration of animal and human research from preclinical and clinical perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 444, 41–53.Google Scholar
  39. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,13, 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schacter, D. L. (1991). Perceptual representation systems and implicit memory: Toward a resolution of the multiple memory systems debate. In A, Diamond (Ed.),Development and neural bases of higher cognitive function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,608, 543–571.Google Scholar
  41. Schacter, D. L., Bowers, J., &Booker, J. (1989). Intention, awareness, and implicit memory: The retrieval intentionality criterion. In S. Lewandowsky, J. C. Dunn, & K. Kirsner (Eds.),implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 47–65). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Schacter, D. L., &Graf, P. (1986a). Effects of elaborative processing on implicit and explicit memory for new associations.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 432–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schacter, D. L., &Graf, P. (1986b). Preserved learning in amnesic patients: Perspectives from research on direct priming.Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology,8, 727–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shimamura, A. P. (1986). Priming effects in amnesia: Evidence for a dissociable memory function.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,38A, 619–644.Google Scholar
  45. Shimamura, A. P., &Squire, L. R. (1984). Paired-associate learning and priming effects in amnesia: A neuropsychological approach.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,113, 556–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shimamura, A. P., &Squire, L. R. (1989). Impaired priming of new associations in amnesia.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,15, 721–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smith, D. B. (1987). Anticonvulsants, seizures and performance: The Veteran’s Administrative experience. In M. R. Trimble & E. H. Reynolds (Eds.),Epilepsy, behavior, and cognitive function (pp. 67–83). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Squire, L. S. (1987).Memory and brain. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  49. Squire, L. S., Wetzel, C. D., &Slater, P. C. (1978). Anterograde amnesia following ECT: An analysis of the beneficial effect of partial information.Neuropsychologia,16, 339–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Srinivas, K., &Roediger, H. L., III (1990). Testing the nature of two implicit tests: Dissociations between conceptually driven and data-driven processes.Journal of Memory & Language,29, 389–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tulving, E., &Donaldson, W. (1972).Organization of memory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  52. Tulving, E., &Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems.Science,247, 301–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Warrington, E. K., &Weiskrantz, L. (1968). New method of testing long-term retention with special reference to amnesic patients.Nature,217, 972–974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Warrington, E. K., &Weiskrantz, L. (1970). Amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval?Nature,228, 628–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Weiskrantz, L. (1985). On issues and theories of the human amnesic syndrome. In N. M. Weinberger, J. L. McGaugh, & G. Lynch (Eds.),Memory systems of the brain (pp. 380–415). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  56. Weldon, M. S.,&Roediger, H. L., III (1987). Altering retrieval demands reverses the picture superiority effect.Memory & Cognition,15, 269–280.Google Scholar
  57. Wood, F., Ebert, V., &Kinsbourne, M. (1982). The episodic-semantic memory distinction in memory and amnesia: Clinical and experimental observations. In L. S. Cermak (Ed.),Human memory and amnesia (pp. 167–193). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teresa A. Blaxton
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeBethesda

Personalised recommendations