Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 1011–1026 | Cite as

The cognitive neuroscience of creativity

  • Arne DietrichEmail author
Theoretical And Review Articles


This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit. By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article. The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.


Prefrontal Cortex Frontal Lobe Creative Thinking Cognitive Flexibility Creativity Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Amabile, T. (1983).The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R., &Bower, G. H. (1973).Human associative memory. Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Ashby, G. F., Isen, A. M., &Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition.Psychological Review,106, 529–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashby, G. F., Valentin, V. V., &Turken, A. U. (2002). The effects of positive affect and arousal on working memory and executive attention: Neurobiology and computational models. In S. Moore & M. Oaksford (Eds.),Emotional cognition: From brain to behaviour (pp. 245–287). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  5. Axelrod, B. N., Jiron, C. C., &Henry, R. R. (1993). Performance of adults ages 20 to 90 on the abbreviated Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.Clinical Neuropsychology,7, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baars, B. J. (1989).A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baddeley, A. (1996). Exploring the central executive.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,49A, 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory.Trends in Cognitive Sciences,4, 417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker-Sennett, J., &Ceci, S. (1996). Clue-efficiency and insight: Unveiling the mystery of inductive leaps.Journal of Creative Behavior,30, 153–172.Google Scholar
  10. Bekhtereva, N. P., Dan’ko, S. G., Starchenko, M. G., Pakhomov, S. V., &Medvedev, S. V. (2001). Study of the brain organization of creativity: III. Positron-emission tomography data.Human Physiology,27, 390–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bekhtereva, N. P., Starchenko, M. G., Klyucharev, V. A., Vorob’ev, V. A., Pakhomov, S. V., &Medvedev, S. V. (2000). Study of the brain organization of creativity: II. Positron-emission tomography data.Human Physiology,26, 516–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boden, J. E., &Boden, G. M. (1969). The other side of the brain III: The corpus callosum and creativity.Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society,34, 191–203.Google Scholar
  13. Boden, M. A. (1998). Creativity and artificial intelligence.Artificial Intelligence,103, 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boone, B. K. (1999). Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions. In B. L. Miller & J. L. Cummings (Eds.),The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders (pp. 247–260). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  15. Bransford, J. D., &Stein, B. S. (1984).The ideal problem solver. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  16. Braun, A. R., Balkin, T. J., Wesensten, N. J., Gwadry, F., Carson, R. E., Varga, M., Baldwin, P., Selbie, S., Belenky, G., &Herscovitch, P. (1997). Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle.Brain, 120, 1173–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Broadbent, D. A. (1958).Perception and communication. New York: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruckner, R. L. (1996). Beyond HERA: Contributions of specific prefrontal brain areas to long-term memory retrieval.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 149–158.Google Scholar
  19. Cabeza, R., &Nyberg, L. (2000). Imaging cognition II: An empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies.Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,12, 1–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cadoret, G., Pike, G. B., &Petrides, M. (2001). Selective activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the human brain during active retrieval processing.European Journal of Neuroscience,14, 1164–1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carlsson, I., Wendt, P. E., &Risberg, J. (2000). On the neurobiology of creativity: Differences in frontal activity between high and low creative subjects.Neuropsychologia,38, 873–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Channon, S., &Crawford, S. (1999). Problem-solving in real-lifetype situations: The effect of anterior and posterior lesions on performance.Neuropsychologia,37, 757–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Churchland, P. S. (2002).Brain-wise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic processing.Psychological Review,82, 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conway, A. A. R., Cowan, N., &Bunting, M. F. (2001). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: The importance of working memory capacity.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,8, 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Courtney, S. M., Petit, L., Haxby, J. V., &Ungerleider, L. G. (1998). The role of prefrontal cortex in working memory: Examining the contents of consciousness.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B,353, 1819–1828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cowan, N. (1995).Attention and memory: An integrated framework. Oxford Psychology Series, No. 26. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity.Behavioral & Brain Sciences,24, 87–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crick, F. H. C., &Koch, C. (1998). Consciousness and neuroscience.Cerebral Cortex,8, 97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Society, culture, person: A systems view of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),The nature of creativity (pp. 325–339). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Damasio, A. R. (1994).Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
  32. Damasio, A. R. (2001). Some notes on brain, imagination and creativity. In K. H. Pfenninger & V. R. Shubik (Eds.),The origins of creativity (pp. 59–68). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Damasio, A. R. (2002).Conference proceedings: Neuroethics. Mapping the field. New York: Dana.Google Scholar
  34. DeBono, E. (1968).New think: The use of lateral thinking in the generation of new ideas. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Dehaene, S., &Naccache, L. (2001). Toward a cognitive science of consciousness: Basic evidence and a workspace framework.Cognition,79, 1–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Desgranges, B., Baron, J.-C., &Eustache, F. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory: The role of the frontal lobes, the hippocampal formation, and other areas.NeuroImage,8, 198–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dietrich, A. (2003). Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness. The transient hypofrontality hypothesis.Consciousness & Cognition,12, 231–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dietrich, A. (2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow.Consciousness & Cognition,13, 746–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dietrich, A., &Allen, J. D. (1998). Functional dissociation of the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus in timing behavior.Behavioral Neuroscience,112, 1043–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dietrich, A., Taylor, J. T., &Passmore, C. E. (2001). AVP (4-8) improves concept learning in PFC-damaged but not hippocampal-damaged rats.Brain Research,919, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Duncan, J., &Owen, A. M. (2000). Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands.Trends in Neurosciences,23, 475–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Duncker, K. (1945). On problem solving.Psychological Monographs,585, (No 270).Google Scholar
  43. Eysenck, H. J. (1993). Creativity and personality: Suggestions for a theory.Psychological Inquiry,4, 147–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eysenck, H. J. (1995).Genius: The natural history of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fink, G. R., Markowitsch, H. J., Reinkemeier, M., Bruckbauer, T., Kessler, J., &Heiss, W. D. (1996). Cerebral representation of one’s own past: Neural networks involved in autobiographical memory.Journal of Neuroscience,16, 4275–4282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Finke, R. A. (1996). Imagery, creativity, and emergent structure.Consciousness & Cognition,5, 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fletcher, P. C., Anderson, J. M., Shanks, D. R., Honey, R., Carpenter, T. A., Donovan, T., Papdakis, N., &Bullmore, E. T. (2001). Responses of the human frontal cortex to surprising events are predicted by formal associative learning theory.Nature Neuroscience,4, 1043–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frensch, P. A., &Sternberg, R. J. (1989). Expertise and intelligent thinking: When is it worse to know better? In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 5, pp. 157–188). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  49. Friedman, R. S., &Förster, J. (2002). The influence of approach and avoidance motor actions on creative cognition.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,38, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Frith, C. D., &Dolan, R. (1996). The role of the prefrontal cortex in higher cognitive functions.Cognitive Brain Research,5, 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frith, C. D., &Frith, U. (2001). Cognitive psychology-Interacting minds-A biological basis.Science,286, 1692–1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fuster, J. M. (1995). Temporal processing-Structure and function of the human prefrontal cortex.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 769, 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fuster, J. M. (2000a). Executive frontal functions.Experimental Brain Research,133, 66–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fuster, J. M. (2000b). The prefrontal cortex of the primate: A synopsis.Psychobiology,28, 125–131.Google Scholar
  55. Fuster, J. M. (2002). Frontal lobe and cognitive development.Journal of Neurocytology,31, 373–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.Annual Review of Psychology,49, 87–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gardner, H. (1993).Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen though the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  58. Gazzaniga, S. M., Ivry, R. B., &Mangun, G. R. (1998).Cognitive neuroscience. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  59. Gilbert, P. F. C. (2001). An outline of brain function.Cognitive Brain Research,12, 61–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1992). Working memory and the mind.Scientific American,267, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goodwin, D. W. (1992). Alcohol as muse.American Journal of Psychotherapy,46, 422–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gruber, H. E. (1981).Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  63. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity.American Psychologist,5, 444–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guilford, J. P. (1967).The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  65. Guilford, J. P. (1982). Is some creative thinking irrational?Journal of Creative Behavior,16, 151–154.Google Scholar
  66. Halford, G. S., Wilson, W. H., &Phillips, S. (1998). Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: Implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology.Behavioral & Brain Sciences,21, 723–802.Google Scholar
  67. Hartman, E. (1966). The psychophysiology of free will. In R. Lowenstein, L. Newman, & A. Solnit (Eds.),Psychoanalysis: A general psychology. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Hasegawa, I., Hayashi, T., &Miyashita, Y. (1999). Memory retrieval under the control of the prefrontal cortex.Annals of Medicine,31, 380–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hayes, R. R. (1989). Cognitive processes in creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.),Handbook of creativity (pp. 135–145). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  70. Hebb, D. O. (1939). Intelligence in man after large removal of cerebral tissue: Report of four left frontal lobe cases.Journal of General Psychology,21, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hobson, J. A. (1988).The dreaming brain. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Hobson, J. A., & McCarley, R. (1977). The brain as a dream-state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.American Journal of Psychiatry,134, 1335–1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hobson, J. A., Pace-Schott, E. F., &Stickhold, R. (2000). Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states.Behavioural & Brain Sciences,23, 793–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hull, D. L., Tessner, P. D., &Diamond, A. M. (1978). Planck’s principle: Do younger scientists accept new scientific ideas with greater alacrity than older scientists?Science,202, 717–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jamison, K. R. (1993).Touched by fire: Manic depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  76. Janowsky, J. S., Shimamura, A. P., &Squire, L. R. (1989). Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions.Neuropsychologia,27, 1043–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jasper, H. H. (1995). A historical perspective: The rise and fall of prefrontal lobotomy.Advances in Neurology,66, 97–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kane, M. J., Bleckley, M. K., Conway, A. R. A., &Engle, R. W. (2001). A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,130, 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Katz, A. N. (1986). The relationship between creativity and cerebral hemisphericity for creative architects, scientists, and mathematicians.Empirical Studies of the Arts,4, 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Keenan, J. P., Wheeler, M. A., Gallup, G. G., &Pascual-Leone, A. (2000). Self-recognition and the right prefrontal cortex.Trends in Cognitive Sciences,4, 338–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kesner, R. P., &Holbrook, T. (1987). Dissociation of item and order spatial memory in rats following medial prefrontal cortex lesions.Neuropsychologia,25, 653–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kikyo, H., Ohki, K., &Sekihara, K. (2001). Temporal characterization of memory retrieval processes: An fMRI study of the “tip of the tongue” phenomenon.European Journal of Neuroscience,14, 887–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kinsbourne, M. (1982). Hemispheric specialization and the growth of human understanding.American Psychologist,37, 411–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Knight, R. T., &Grabowecky, M. (1999). Prefrontal cortex, time, and consciousness. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.),The cognitive neurosciences (2nd ed., pp. 1319–1337). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  85. Knoblich, G., Ohlsson, S., Haider, H., &Rhenius, D. (1999). Constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition in insight problem solving.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 1534–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Koechlin, E., Basso, G., Pietrini, P., Panzer, S., &Grafman, J. (1999). The role of the anterior prefrontal cortex in human cognition.Nature,399, 148–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Koestler, A. (1964).The act of creation. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  88. Kolb, B. (1984). Functions of the prefrontal cortex in the rat: A comparative view.Brain Research Review,8, 65–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kolb, B., &Whishaw, I. Q. (1983). Problems and principles in crossspecies generalizations. In E. T. Robinson (Ed.),Behavioral contribution to brain research (pp. 266–287). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Konishi, S., Nakajima, K., Uchida, I., Kameyama, M., Nakahara, K., Sekihara, K., &Miyashita, Y. (1998). Transient activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex during cognitive set shifting.Nature Neuroscience,1, 80–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kornhuber, H. H. (1993). Prefrontal cortex and homo-sapiens-on creativity and reasoned will.Neurological Psychiatry & Brain Research,2, 1–6.Google Scholar
  92. Kuhn, T. (1970).The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  93. LeDoux, J. (1996).The emotional brain. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  94. Lehman, H. C. (1953).Age and achievement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Lhermitte, F. (1983). “Utilization behaviour” and its relation to lesions of the frontal lobes.Brain,106, 237–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lhermitte, F., Pillon, B., &Serdaru, M. (1986). Human autonomy and the frontal lobes: Part I. Imitation and utilization behavior: A neuropsychological study of 75 patients.Annals of Neurology,19, 326–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lunchins, A. S., &Lunchins, E. H. (1959).Rigidity of behavior. Eugene: University of Oregon Press.Google Scholar
  98. Markowitsch, H. J. (1995). Cerebral bases of consciousness: A historical view.Neuropsychologia,33, 1181–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Martindale, C. (1995). Creativity and connectionism. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.),The creative cognition approach (pp. 249–268). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  100. Martindale, C. (1999). The biological basis of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Handbook of creativity (pp. 137–152). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Mayberg, H. S. (1997). Limbic-cortical dysregulation: A proposed model of depression.Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience,9, 471–481.Google Scholar
  102. Means, L. W., &Holstein, R. D. (1992). Individual aged rats are impaired on repeated reversals due to loss of different behavioral patterns.Physiology & Behavior,52, 959–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process.Psychological Review,69, 220–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Metcalfe, J. (1986). Feelings of knowing in memory and problem solving.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Miller, B. L., Cummings, J., Mishkin, F., Boone, K., Prince, F., Ponton, M., &Cotman, C. (1998). Emergence of artistic talent in frontotemporal dementia.Neurology, 51, 978–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Miller, E. K., &Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.Annual Review of Neuroscience,24, 167–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Milner, B. (1995). Aspects of human frontal lobe function.Advances in Neurology,66, 67–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mishkin, M., Malamut, B., &Bachevalier, J. (1984). Memory and habit: Two neural systems. In G. Lynch, J. J. McGaugh, & N. M. Weinberger (Eds.),Neurobiology of learning and memory (pp. 66–77). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  109. Monchi, O., Petrides, M., Petre, V., Worsley, K., &Dagher, A. (2001). Wisconsin card sorting revisited: Distinct neural circuits participating in different stages of the task identified by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.Journal of Neuroscience,21, 7733–7741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Nisbett, R. E., &Ross, L. (1980).Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  111. Norman, D. A., &Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. S. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz, & D. Shapiro (Eds.),Consciousness and self-regulation (pp. 1–18). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  112. Nyberg, L. (1998). Mapping episodic memory.Behavioural Brain Research,90, 107–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Petrides, M. (1996). Specialized systems for the processing of mnemonic information within the primate frontal cortex.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B,351, 1455–1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Petrides, M., &Pandya, D. N. (1999). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Comparative cytoarchitectonic analysis in the human and the macaque brain.European Journal of Neuroscience,11, 1011–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pfenninger, K. H., &Shubik, V. R. (2001). Insights into the foundation of creativity: A synthesis. In K. H. Pfenninger & V. R. Shubik (Eds.),The origins of creativity (pp. 213–236). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Pinker, S. (1999).How the mind works. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  117. Posner, M. (1994). Attention: The mechanism of consciousness.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,91, 7398–7403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Post, F. (1994). Creativity and psychopathology: A study of 291 worldfamous men.British Journal of Psychiatry,165, 22–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Post, F. (1996). Verbal creativity, depression and alcoholism: An investigation of one hundred American and British writers.British Journal of Psychiatry,168, 545–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Povinelli, D. J., &Preuss, T. M. (1995). Theory of mind: Evolutionary history of a cognitive specialization.Trends in Neurosciences,18, 418–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Quintana, J., &Fuster, J. M. (1999). From perception to action: Temporal integrative function of prefrontal and parietal neurons.Cerebral Cortex,9, 213–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rechtschaffen, A. (1978). The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams.Sleep,1, 97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothenberg, A. (2001). Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.Psychiatry Quarterly,72, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rylander, G. (1948). Personality analysis before and after frontal lobotomy.Research Publication—Association for Research in Nervous & Mental Disease,27, 691–705.Google Scholar
  125. Sarter, M., Givens, B., &Bruno, J. P. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: Where top-down meets bottom-up.Brain Research Reviews,35, 146–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sass, L. A. (2000). Schizophrenia, modernism, and the “creative imagination”: On creativity and psychopathology.Creativity Research Journal,13, 55–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Scheibel, A. B. (1999). Creativity and the brain. Available at Scholar
  128. Schooler, J. W., &Melcher, J. (1995). The ineffability of insight. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.),The creative cognition approach (pp. 97–133). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  129. Shallice, T., &Burgess, W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man.Brain,114, 727–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shirley, D. A., &Langan-Fox, J. (1996). Intuition: A review of the literature.Psychological Reports,79, 563–584.Google Scholar
  131. Simonton, D. K. (1975). Creativity, task complexity, and intuitive versus analytical problem solving.Psychological Reports,37, 351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Simonton, D. K. (1988). Creativity, leadership, and chance. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.),The nature of creativity: Current psychological perspectives (pp. 386–426). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  133. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks.Psychological Review,104, 66–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Simonton, D. K. (1999). Creativity from a historiometric perspective. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Handbook of Creativity (pp. 116–133). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Simonton, D. K. (2000). Creativity: Cognitive, personal, developmental, and social aspects.American Psychologist,55, 151–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, person, and process.Psychological Bulletin,129, 475–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Singer, J. L. (1975). Navigating the stream of consciousness: Research in daydreaming and related inner experiences.American Psychologist,30, 727–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Singer, J. L. (1978). Experimental studies of daydreaming and the stream of thought. In K. S. Pope & J. L. Singer (Eds.),The stream of consciousness: Scientific investigations into the flow of human experience (pp. 209–227). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  139. Squire, L. R. (1992). Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys and humans.Psychological Review,99, 195–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sternberg, R. J., &Lubart, T. I. (1995). An investment perspective on creative insight. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.),The nature of insight (pp. 386–426). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  141. Sternberg, R. J., &Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Handbook of creativity (pp. 3–15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Stone, V. E., Baron-Cohen, S., &Knight, R. T. (1998). Frontal lobe contributions to the theory of mind.Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,10, 640–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Taylor, J. G. (2001). The central role of the parietal lobes in consciousness.Consciousness & Cognition,10, 379–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Taylor, S. F. (1996). Cerebral blood flow and functional lesions in schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research,19, 129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Torrance, E. P. (1974).Torrance test of creative thinking. Lexington, MA: Personal Press.Google Scholar
  146. Torrance, E. P. (1988). Intense emotional experiences-impetus for creation.Creative Child & Adult Quarterly,11, 130–137.Google Scholar
  147. Torrance, E. P., &Hall, L. K. (1980). Assessing the further reaches of creative potential.Journal of Creative Behavior,14, 1–19.Google Scholar
  148. Vogeley, K., Bussfeld, P., Newen, A., Herrman, S., Happe, F., Falkai, P., Maier, W., Shah, N. J., Fink, G. R., &Zilles, K. (2001). Mind reading: Neural mechanisms of theory of mind and selfperspective.NeuroImage,14, 170–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vogeley, K., Kurthen, M., Falkai, P., &Maier, W. (1999). Essential functions of the human self model are implemented in the prefrontal cortex.Consciousness & Cognition,8, 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Waddell, C. (1998). Creativity and mental illness: Is there a link?Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,43, 166–172.Google Scholar
  151. Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., &Finke, R. A. (1999). Creative cognition. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Handbook of creativity (pp. 189–212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Weisberg, R. W. (1993).Creativity: Beyond the myth of genius. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  153. Weisberg, R. W. (1999). Creativity and knowledge: A challenge to theories. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Handbook of creativity (pp. 226–250). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Weisberg, R. W., &Alba, J. W. (1981). An examination of the alleged role of “fixation” in the solution of several “insight” problems.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,110, 169–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wertheimer, M. (1982).Productive thinking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social and Behavioral SciencesAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations