Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 39–50 | Cite as

A Clockwork Orange: Compensation opposing momentum in memory for location

  • Steve JoordensEmail author
  • Thomas M. Spalek
  • Samira Razmy
  • Marc Van Duijn
Article

Abstract

Libet, Gleason, Wright, and Pearl’s (1983; Libet, 1985) influential work using a clock-watching task suggests that voluntary actions are initiated in motor cortex prior to the point where the participant claims to have initiated that action. Joordens, van Duijn, and Spalek (2002) showed that a bias exists in this task with respect to the participants’ reports of initiation times. Joordens et al. assumed that this bias was primarily due to motion cues that are very much like those used to elicit phenomena such as representational momentum. In the present Experiment 1, it is demonstrated that this bias disappears when a mouse-click response is used in place of a temporal-order judgment. This finding, however, is actually more confusing than clarifying given that the procedural parallels with representational momentum are still present and should be supporting a bias. In the three subsequent experiments the view that a bias is indeed present, but that it is opposed by an opposite-acting compensation process, is proposed and tested. Implications for both representational momentum and for the general use of clock-watching tasks (e.g., Libet et al., 1983) are highlighted.

Keywords

Momentum Effect Compensation Process Representational Momentum Actual Target Location Momentum Bias 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Cheesman, J., &Merikle, P. M. (1986). Distinguishing conscious from unconscious processes.Canadian Journal of Psychology,40, 343–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Craik, F. I. M. (1982). Selective changes in encoding as a function of reduced processing capacity. In F. Klix, J. Hoffman, & E. van der Meer (Eds.),Cognitive research in psychology (pp. 152–161). Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  3. Finke, R. A., &Freyd, J. J. (1985). Transformations of visual memory induced by implied motions of pattern elements.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 780–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Finke, R. A., Freyd, J. J., &Shyi, G. C. W. (1986). Implied velocity and acceleration induce transformations of visual memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,115, 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Freyd, J. J. (1987). Dynamic mental representations.Psychological Review,94, 427–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Freyd, J. J., &Finke, R. A. (1984). Representational momentum.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,10, 126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Freyd, J. J., &Johnson, J. Q. (1987). Probing the time course of representational momentum.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,13, 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fröhlich, F. W. (1923). Über die Messung der Empfindungszeit [Measuring the time of sensation].Zeitschrift für Sinnesphysiologie,54, 58–78.Google Scholar
  9. Gray, R., &Thornton, I. M. (2001). Exploring the link between time to collision and representational momentum.Perception,30, 1007–1022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Groeger, J. A. (1984). Evidence of unconscious semantic processing from a forced error situation.British Journal of Psychology,75, 305–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Halpern, A. R., &Kelly, M. H. (1993). Memory biases in left versus right implied motion.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,19, 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, A. E., &Freyd J. J. (2002). Representational momentum when attention is divided.Visual Cognition,9, 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hazelhoff, F. F., &Wiersma, H. (1924). Die Wahrnehmungszeit [The sensation of time].Zeitschrift für Psychologie,96, 171–188.Google Scholar
  14. Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Cognitive representations of linear motion: Possible direction and gravity effects in judged displacement.Memory & Cognition,18, 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum.Memory & Cognition,21, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,2, 322–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Representational momentum and other displacements in memory as evidence for nonconscious knowledge of physical principles. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak, & A. Scott (Eds.),Towards a science of consciousness: II. The second Tucson discussions and debates (pp. 505–512). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hubbard, T. L. (1999). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. In P. R. Killeen & W. R. Uttal (Eds.),Fechner Day 99: The End of Twentieth-Century Psychophysics: Proceedings of the 15th annual meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 274–279). Tempe, AZ: International Society for Psychophysics.Google Scholar
  19. Hubbard, T. L., &Bharucha J. J. (1988). Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion.Perception & Psychophysics,44, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hubbard, T. L., &Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and landmark attraction effects.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,27, 294–301.Google Scholar
  21. Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory.Journal of Memory & Language,30, 513–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Joordens, S., &Merikle, P. M. (1992). False recognition and perception without awareness.Memory & Cognition,20, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Joordens, S., van Duijn, M., &Spalek, T. M. (2002). When timing the mind one should also mind the timing: Biases in the measurement of voluntary actions.Consciousness & Cognition,11, 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kerzel, D. (2000). Eye movements and visible persistence explain the mislocation of the final position of a moving target.Vision Research,40, 3703–3715.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kerzel, D., Jordan, J. S., &Müsseler, J. (2001). The role of perceptual anticipation in the mislocation of the final position of a moving target.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,27, 829–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kozhevnikov, M., &Hegarty, M. (2001). Impetus beliefs as default heuristics: Dissociation between explicit versus implicit knowledge about motion.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,8, 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Libet, B. (1985). Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action.Behavioral & Brain Sciences,8, 529–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Libet, B., Gleason C. A., Wright, E. W., &Pearl, D. K. (1983). Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential): The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act.Brain,106, 623–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Loftus, E. (1974). Reconstructing memory: The incredible eyewitness.Psychology Today,8, 116–119.Google Scholar
  30. Merikle, P. M., &Joordens, S. (1997). Parallels between perception without attention and perception without awareness.Consciousness & Cognition,6, 219–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Merikle, P. M., Joordens, S., &Stolz, J. A. (1997). Measuring the relative magnitude of unconscious influences.Consciousness & Cognition,4, 422–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller, J., &Trevena, J. A. (2002). Cortical movement preparation and conscious decisions: Averaging artifacts and timing biases.Consciousness & Cognition,11, 308–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Müsseler, J., Stork, S., &Kerzel, D. (2002). Comparing mislocalizations with moving stimuli: The Fröhlich effect, the flash-lag, and representational momentum.Visual Cognition,9, 120–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nagai, M., Kazai, K., &Yagi, A. (2002). Larger forward displacement in the direction of gravity.Visual Cognition,9, 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagai, M., &Yagi, A. (2001). The pointedness effect on representational momentum.Memory & Cognition,29, 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nijhawan, R. (1994). Motion extrapolation in catching.Nature,370, 256–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Spalek, T. M., & Hammad, S. (2003).Supporting the attentional momentum view of inhibition of return: Is attention biased to go right? Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  38. Thornton, I. M., &Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Representational momentum: New findings, new directions.Visual Cognition,9, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trevena, J. A., &Miller, J. (2002). Cortical movement preparation before and after a conscious decision to move.Consciousness & Cognition,11, 162–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wegner, D. M. (2002).The illusion of conscious will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve Joordens
    • 3
    Email author
  • Thomas M. Spalek
    • 1
  • Samira Razmy
    • 3
  • Marc Van Duijn
    • 2
  1. 1.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Leiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Division of Life SciencesUniversity of Toronto at ScarboroughScarboroughCanada

Personalised recommendations