STEP—A System for Teaching Experimental Psychology using E-Prime

  • Brian MacWhinney
  • James St. James
  • Chris Schunn
  • Ping Li
  • Walter Schneider
Article

Abstract

Students in psychology need to learn to design and analyze their own experiments. However, software that allows students to build experiments on their own has been limited in a variety of ways. The shipping of the first full release of the E-Prime system later this year will open up a new opportunity for addressing this problem. Because E-Prime promises to become the standard for building experiments in psychology, it is now possible to construct a Web-based resource that uses E-Prime as the delivery engine for a wide variety of instructional materials. This new system, funded by the National Science Foundation, is called STEP (System for the Teaching of Experimental Psychology). The goal of the STEP Project is to provide instructional materials that will facilitate the use of E-Prime in various learning contexts. We are now compiling a large set of classic experiments implemented in E-Prime and available over the Internet from http://step.psy.cmu.edu. The Web site also distributes instructional materials for building courses in experimental psychology based on E-Prime.

References

  1. Adolph, K. E. (1995). Psychophysical assessment of toddlers’ ability to cope with slopes.Journal of Experimental Psychology,21, 734–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelrod, R. (1984).The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. (1966). Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic, and formal similarity.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,18, 362–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranski, J. V., &Petrusic, W. M. (1996). On the calibration of knowledge and perception.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,49, 397–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barclay, C. R., &Wellman, H. M. (1986). Accuracies and inaccuracies in autobiographical memories.Journal of Memory & Language,25, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilodeau, R. A., Bilodeau, I. M., &Schumsky, D. A. (1959). Some effects of introducing and withdrawing knowledge of results early and late in practice.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 142–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bodenhausen, G., &Lichtenstein, M. (1987). Social stereotypes and information-processing strategies: The impact of task complexity.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,52, 871–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boland, J., Tanenhaus, M., &Garnsey, S. (1990). Evidence for the immediate use of verb control information in sentence processing.Journal of Memory & Language,29, 413–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bransford, J. D., &Franks, J. J. (1971). The abstraction of linguistic ideas.Cognitive Psychology,2, 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewer, W. F. (1977). Memory for the pragmatic implications of sentences.Memory & Cognition,5, 673–678.Google Scholar
  11. Broadbent, D. R. (1954). The role of auditory localization and attention in memory spans.Journal of Experimental Psychology,47, 191–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, J. A. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,10, 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherry, C. (1953). Some experiments on the recognition of speech with one or two ears.Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,25, 975–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, H. H., &Chase, W. G. (1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures.Cognitive Psychology,3, 472–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coles, M. G. H., &Rugg, M. D. (1995). Introduction. In M. G. H. Coles & M. D. Rugg (Eds.),Electrophysiology of mind: Event-related brain potentials and cognition (pp. 1–26). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Conrad, R. (1964). Acoustic confusions in immediate memory.British Journal of Psychology,55, 75–84.Google Scholar
  17. Conway, A. R. A., &Rngle, R. W. (1996). Individual differences in working memory capacity: More evidence for a general capacity theory.Memory,4, 577–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Craik, F. I. M., &Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology,104, 268–294.Google Scholar
  19. Craik, E. I. M., &Watkins, M. J. (1973). The role of rehearsal in shortterm memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,12, 599–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daneman, M., &Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,19, 450–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rkman, P., &Friesen, W. (1978).Facial action coding system,: Investigator’s guide. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  22. Rriksen, G. W., &St. James, J. D. (1986). Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: A zoom lens model.Perception & Psychophysics,40, 225–240.Google Scholar
  23. Rrtel, S., &Bloemer, W. (1975). Affirmation and negation as constructive action.Psychologische Forschung,37, 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fechner, G T. (1856).Elements of psychophysics. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel.Google Scholar
  25. Garner, W. R. (1970). Good patterns have few alternatives.American Scientist,58, 34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Glushko, R. (1979). The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading words aloud.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,5, 674–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gray, J. A., &Wedderburn, A. (1960). Grouping strategies with simultaneous stimuli.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,12, 180–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green, D. M., &Swets, J. A. (1966).Signal detection theory and psychophysics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Gulick, W. L. (1971).Hearing. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hamilton, D. L., Katz, L. B., &Leirer, V. O. (1980). Cognitive representation of impressions: Organizational processes in first impression formation.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,39, 1050–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Helson, H. (1964).Adaptation level theory. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  32. Higgins, R. T., Rholes, W. S., &Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,13, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huttenlocher, J., &Presson, C. (1973). Mental rotation and the perspective problem.Cognitive Psychology,4, 277–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jacoby, L. L. (1983). Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,22, 485–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., &Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring.Psychological Bulletin,114, 3–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnston, W. A., &Schwarting, I. S. (1996). Reassessing the evidence for novel pop-out.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,125, 208–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Judd, L. M., &Park, B. (1988). Out-group homogeneity: Judgments of variability at the individual and group level.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,54, 778–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jung, R., &Spillman, L. (1970). Receptive-field estimation and perceptual integration in human vision. In F. A. Young & D. B. Lindsley (Eds.),Early experience and visual information processing in perceptual and reading disorders (pp. 181–197). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  39. Kempe, V., &MacWhinney, B. (1999). Processing of morphological and semantic cues in Russian and German.Language & Cognitive Processes,14, 129–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keppel, G. (1982).Design and analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  41. Kirkpatrick, E. A. (1894). An experimental study of memory.Psychological Review,1, 602–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Klahr, D., &Carver, S. (1988). Cognitive objectives in a LOGO debugging curriculum: Instruction, learning, and transfer.Cognitive Psychology,20, 362–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Klapp, S. T. (1988). Multiple resources for processing and storage in short-term memory.Human Factors,30, 617–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Koriat, A., Lichtenstein, S., &Fischhoff, B. (1980). Reasons for confidence.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,6, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kornhuber, H. H., &Deeke, L. (1965). Cerebral potential changes in voluntary and passive movements in man: Readiness potential and reafferent.Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie,284, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Körte, A. (1915). Kinematoskopische Untersuchungen.Zeitschrift für Psychologie,72, 192–296.Google Scholar
  47. Kramer, A. F., &Hahn, S. (1995). Splitting the beam: Distribution of attention over noncontiguous regions of the visual field.Psychological Science,6, 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuhl, P. K. (1991). Human adults and human infants show a “perceptual magnet effect” for the prototypes of speech categories, monkeys do not.Perception & Psychophysics,50, 93–107.Google Scholar
  49. Kutas, M., &Hillyard, S. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity.Science,207, 203–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Leavitt, H. J. (1951). Some effects of communication patterns on group performance.Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology,46, 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Loftus, R. E., &Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,13, 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lukatela, G., &Turvey, M. T. (1994a). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 1. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,123, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lukatela, G., &Turvey, M. T. (1994b). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 2. Evidence from phonological priming by homophones and pseudohomophones.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,123, 331–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. MacDonald, M. (1993). The interaction of lexical and syntactic ambiguity.Journal of Memory & Language,32, 692–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marslen-WIlson, W. D., &Teuber, H.-L. (1975). Memory for remote events in anterograde amnesia: Recognition of public figures from news photographs.Neuropsychologia,13, 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Massaro, D. W. (1987).Speech perception by ear and eye. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. McCollough, C. (1965). Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system.Science,149, 1115–1116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Metzler, J., &Shepard, R. N. (1974). Transformational studies of the internal representation of three-dimensional objects. In R. L. Solso (Ed.),Theories in cognitive psychology: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 147–201). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  59. Meyer, D. E., &Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations.Journal of Experimental Psychology,90, 227–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moray, N. (1959). Attention in dichotic listening: Affective cues and the influence of instructions.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,11, 56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Myers, D. G., &Lamm, H. (1976). The group polarization phenomenon.Psychological Bulletin,83, 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neisser, U. (1964). Visual search.Scientific American,210(6), 94–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Neisser, U., &Becklen, R. (1975). Selective looking: Attending to visually significant events.Cognitive Psychology,7, 480–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Newell, A., &Rosenbloom, P. S. (1981). Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.),Cognitive skills and their acquisition (pp. 1–55). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Nisbett, R. R., &Ross, L. (1980).Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  66. Paivio, A. (1965). Abstractness, imagery, and meaningfulness in paired-associate learning.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,4, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Perfetti, C. A., Bell, L. C., &Delaney, S. M. (1988). Automatic (prelexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking.Journal of Memory & Language,27, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Piaget, J., Inhelder, B., &Szeminska, A. (1960).The child’s conception of geometry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  69. Posner, M. I., &Keele, S. W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas.Journal of Experimental Psychology,77, 353–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Posner, M. I., Snyder, C. R., &Davidson, B. J. (1980). Attention and the detection of signals.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,109, 160–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ramachandran, V. S. (1992). Blind spots.Scientific American,266(5), 86–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rayner, K., Carlson, M., &Frazier, L. (1983). The interaction of syntax and semantics during sentence processing: Eye movements in the analysis of semantically biased sentences.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,22, 358–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, J. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saffran, J. R., Newport, R. L., Aslin, R. N., Tunick, R. A., &Barrueco, S. (1997). Incidental language learning: Listening (and learning) out of the corner of your ear.Psychological Science,8, 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schiffman, H. R. (1982).Sensation and perception: An integrated approach. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  76. Schneider, W., &Shiffrin, R. M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention.Psychological Review,84, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shapiro, K. L., Raymond, J. E., &Arnell, K. M. (1994). Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,20, 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shaughnessy, J. J., &Zechmeister, R. B. (1994).Research methods in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Sheppard, W. C., &Lane, H. L. (1968). Development of the prosodie features of infant vocalizing.Journal of Speech & Hearing Research,11, 56–60.Google Scholar
  80. Siegler, R. (1988). Individual differences in strategy choices: Good students, not-so-good students, and perfectionists.Child Development,59, 833–851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentation.Psychological Monographs,74 (11, Whole No. 498).Google Scholar
  82. Sternberg, S. (1966). High speed scanning in human memory.Science,153, 652–654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Stevens, S. S. (1972).Psychophysics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  84. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions.Journal of Experimental Psychology,18, 643–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sutton, S., Braren, M., &Zubin, J. (1965). Evoked potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty.Science,150, 1187–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Swinney, D. A. (1979). Lexical access during sentence comprehension: (Re)consideration of context effects.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,18, 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Treisman, A. M. (1960). Contextual cues in selective listening.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,12, 242–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Treisman, A. M., &Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention.Cognitive Psychology,12, 97–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tulving, R., &Pearlstone, Z. (1966). Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,5, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vaughan, J., &Yee, P. L. (1994). Using PsyScopefor demonstrations and student-designed experiments in cognitive psychology courses.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,26, 142–147.Google Scholar
  91. Vurpillot, R. (1968). The development of scanning strategies and their relation to visual differentiation.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,6, 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Walter, W., Cooper, R., Aldridge, V., McCallum, W., &Winter, A. (1964). Contingent negative variation: An electrical sign of sensory motor association and expectancy in the human brain.Nature,203, 380–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Warren, R. M., &Warren, R. P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions.Scientific American,223(6), 30–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Waugh, E., &Norman, D. (1965). Primary memory.Psychological Review,72, 89–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Weldon, M. S., &Roediger, H. L., III (1987). Altering retrieval demands reverses the picture superiority effect.Memory & Cognition,15, 269–280.Google Scholar
  96. Welford, A. T. (1968). Fundamentals of skill. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  97. Wickens, D. D. (Ed.) (1972).Characteristics of word encoding. Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  98. Yantis, S. (1993). Stimulus driven attentional capture and attentional control settings.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,19, 682–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian MacWhinney
    • 1
  • James St. James
    • 2
  • Chris Schunn
    • 3
  • Ping Li
    • 4
  • Walter Schneider
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh
  2. 2.Millikin UniversityDecatur
  3. 3.George Mason UniversityFairfax
  4. 4.University of RichmondRichmond
  5. 5.University of PittsburghPittsburgh

Personalised recommendations