Advertisement

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 600–607 | Cite as

Task-irrelevant visual motion and flicker attenuate the attentional blink

  • Isabel ArendEmail author
  • Stephen Johnston
  • Kimron Shapiro
Brief Reports

Abstract

Our reduced ability to correctly report two sequentially presented targets is seen in the robust effect known as the attentional blink (AB; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992). One recent report (Olivers & Nieuwenhuis, 2005) strikingly reveals the AB to be virtually abolished when non-task-demanding music occurs in the background. The authors suggest that a diffuse attentional state is the mediating factor. Here, we seek to broaden the finding’s generality by determining if task-irrelevant visual motion and flicker also attenuate the AB. In our experiments, the AB task was presented together with a background field of moving dots that could moveaway from ortoward the central AB task, or flicker. In the control condition, the dots remained static. The AB was attenuated—though to different degrees—in all experimental conditions, but not in the static condition. Our findings add to the generality of the previous conclusions, and we emphasize an account based on the overallocation of attention.

Keywords

Attentional Blink Motion Condition Visual Motion Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Target Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arnell, K. M., Helion, A. M., Hurdelbrink, J. A., &Pasieka, B. (2004). Dissociating sources of dual-task interference using human electrophysiology.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,11, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brainard, D. H. (1997). The Psychophysics Toolbox.Spatial Vision,10, 433–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chun, M. M., &Potter, M. C. (1995). A two-stage model for multiple target detection in rapid serial visual presentation.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,21, 109–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crebolder, J. M., & Ostaniewicz, A. J. (2001).Spatial and temporal factors in the attentional blink. Poster presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  5. Gibson, J. J. (1979).The ecological approach to visual perception. Chapter 14: The theory of information pickup and its consequences (pp. 238–263). Boston: Houghton Miflin.Google Scholar
  6. Giesbrecht, B., &Di Lollo, V. (1998). Beyond the attentional blink: Visual masking by object substitution.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,24, 1454–1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Joseph, J. S., Chun, M. M., &Nakayama, K. (1997). Attentional requirements in a “preattentive” feature search task.Nature,379, 805–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kellie, F. J., &Shapiro, K. L. (2004). Object file continuity predicts attentional blink magnitude.Perception & Psychophysics,66, 692–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kessler, K., Schmitz, F., Gross, J., Hommel, B., Shapiro, K., &Schnitzler, A. (2005). Target consolidation under high temporal processing demands as revealed by MEG.NeuroImage,26, 1030–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ogawa, T., &Suzuki, N. (2004). On the saliency of negative stimuli: Evidence from the attentional blink.Japanese Psychological Research,46, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Olivers, C. N. L., &Nieuwenhuis, S. (2005). The beneficial effect of concurrent task-irrelevant mental activity on temporal attention.Psychological Science,16, 265–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Olson, I. R., Chun, M. M., &Anderson, A. K. (2001). Effects of phonological length on the attentional blink for words.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,27, 1116–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pelli, D. G. (1997). The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies.Spatial Vision,10, 437–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Raymond, J. E., Shapiro, K. L., &Arnell, K. M. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: An attentional blink?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,18, 849–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ross, N. E., &Jolicoeur, P. (1999). Attentional blink for color.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,25, 1483–1494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shapiro, K. L., Arnell, K. M., &Raymond, J. E. (1997). The attentional blink.Trends in Cognitive Sciences,1, 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shapiro, K. L., Caldwell, J., &Sorensen, R. E. (1997). Personal names and the attentional blink: The “cocktail party” effect.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,23, 504–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shapiro, K. L., &Johnson, T. L. (1987). Effects of arousal on attention to central and peripheral visual stimuli.Acta Psychologica,66, 157–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shapiro, K. L., &Lim, A. (1989). The impact of anxiety on visual attention to central and peripheral events.Behaviour Research & Therapy,27, 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shapiro, K. L., Raymond, J. E., &Arnell, K. M. (1994). Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,20, 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shapiro, K. L., Schmitz, F., Martens, S., Hommel, B., &Schnitzler, A. (2006). Resource sharing in the attentional blink.NeuroReport,17, 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sheppard, D. M., Duncan, J., Shapiro, K. L., &Hillstrom, A. P. (2002). Objects and events in the attentional blink.Psychological Science,13, 410–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Smilek, D., Enns, J. T., Eastwood, J. D., & Merikle, P. M. (in press). Relax! Cognitive strategy influences visual search.Visual Cognition.Google Scholar
  24. Snodgrass, M., Shevrin, H., &Kopka, M. (1993). The mediation of intentional judgments by unconscious perceptions: The influences of task strategy, task preference, word meaning, and motivation.Consciousness & Cognition,2, 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Arend
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephen Johnston
    • 1
  • Kimron Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Wolfson Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Brigantia BuildingUniversity of WalesBangor Gwynedd

Personalised recommendations