Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 192–198 | Cite as

Word naming and psycholinguistic norms: Chinese

Articles From the SCiP Conference

Abstract

In this article, we present normative data for 2,423 Chinese single-character words. For each word, we report values for the following 15 variables: word frequency, cumulative frequency, homophone density, phonological frequency, age of learning, age of acquisition, number of word formations, number of meanings, number of components, number of strokes, familiarity, concreteness, imageability, regularity, and initial phoneme. To validate the norms, we collected word-naming latencies. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis show that naming latencies of Chinese single-character words are predicted by frequency, semantics, visual features, and consistency, but not by phonology. These analyses show distinct patterns in word naming between Chinese and alphabetic languages and demonstrate the utility of normative data in the study of nonalphabetic orthographic processing.

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., &West, S. G. (1991).Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Balota, D. A., Cortese, M. J., Sergent-Marshall, S. D., Spieler, D. H., &Yap, M. J. (2004). Visual word recognition of single-syllable words.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,133, 283–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbarotto, R., Laiacona, M., &Capitani, E. (2005). Objective versus estimated age of word acquisition: A study of 202 Italian children.Behavior Research Methods,37, 644–650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barca, L., Burani, C., &Arduino, L. S. (2002). Word naming times and psycholinguistic norms for Italian nouns.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,34, 424–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates, E., Burani, C., D’Amico, S., &Barca, L. (2001). Word reading and picture naming in Italian.Memory & Cognition,29, 986–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chalard, M., Bonin, P., Méot, A., Boyer, B., &Fayol, M. (2003). Objective age-of-acquisition (AoA) norms for a set of 230 object names in French: Relationships with psycholinguistic variables, the English data from Morrison et al. (dy1997), and naming latencies.European Journal of Cognitive Psychology,15, 209–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, B. G., &Peng, D. L. (1998). The influence of concreteness on word recognition [in Chinese].Acta Psychologica Sinica,30, 387–393.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, B. G., Wang, L. X., Wang, L. L., &Peng, D. L. (2004). The influence of age of acquisition and word frequency on word recognition [in Chinese].Psychological Science,27, 1060–1064.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, J., &Cohen, P. (1983).Applied multiple regression/-correlation analyses for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, A. W., &Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2000). Age of acquisition effects in adult lexical processing reflect loss of plasticity in maturing system: Insights from connectionist network.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,26, 1103–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forster, K. I., &Forster, J. C. (2003). DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,35, 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frost, R. (1998). Toward a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: True issues and false trails.Psychological Bulletin,123, 71–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., &Tatham, R. (2006).Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Hernandez, A., &Li, P. (2007). Age of acquisition: Its neural and computational mechanisms.Psychological Bulletin,133, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoosain, R. (1992). Psychological reality of the word in Chinese. In H.-C. Chen & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.),Language processing in Chinese (pp. 111–130). Amsterdam: North-Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambon Ralph, M. A., &Ehsan, S. (2006). Age of acquisition effects depend on the mapping between representations and the frequency of occurrence: Empirical and computational evidence.Visual Cognition,13, 928–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leck, K. J., Weekes, B. S., &Chen, M. J. (1995). Visual and phonological pathways to the lexicon: Evidence from Chinese readers.Memory & Cognition,23, 468–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, P., Farkas, I., &MacWhinney, B. (2004). Early lexical development in a self-organizing neural network.Neural Networks,17, 1345–1362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, P., Jin, Z., &Tan, L. H. (2004). Neural representations of nouns and verbs in Chinese: An fMRI study.NeuroImage,21, 1533–1541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, P., &Yip, M. C. (1998). Context effects and the processing of spoken homophones.Reading & Writing,10, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, Y., &Kang, J. S. (1993). Analysis of the phonetic parts of the ideophonetic characters in Modern Chinese. In Y. Chen (Ed.),Information analysis of the usage of characters in modern Chinese (pp. 84–98). Shanghai: Shanghai Education Publisher.Google Scholar
  22. Liu, Y. Y., Zhang, L. J., &Shu, H. (2006). The role of initial phoneme on naming latency [in Chinese].Psychological Science,29, 64–67.Google Scholar
  23. Lukatela, G., &Turvey, M. T. (1994). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 1. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,123, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luo, C. P., &Wang, J. (2002).Putong yuyinxue gangyao [General phonetics: A primer]. Beijing: Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  25. Morrison, C. M., Chappell, T. D., &Ellis, A. W. (1997). Age of acquisition norms for a large set of object names and their relation to adult estimates and other variables.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,50A, 528–559.Google Scholar
  26. Peng, D., &Jiang, H. (2006). Naming Chinese phonograms: From cognitive science to cognitive neuroscience. In P. Li, L. Tan, E. Bates, & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.),Handbook of East Asian psycholinguistics: Vol. 1. Chinese (pp. 346–357). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. People’s Education Press (2006).Standard textbooks for nine-year elementary to high school education. Beijing: People’s Education Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pérez, M. A., &Navalón, C. (2005). Objective AoA norms for 175 names in Spanish: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables, estimated AoA, and data from other languages.European Journal of Cognitive Psychology,17, 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Science Publishers (1988).Dictionary of Chinese character information. Beijing: Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Shibahara, N., Zorzi, M., Hill, M. P., Wydell, T., &Butterworth, B. (2003). Semantic effects in word naming: Evidence from English and Japanese Kanji.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,56A, 263–286.Google Scholar
  31. Shu, H., Chen, X., Anderson, R. C., Wu, N. N., &Xuan, Y. (2003). Properties of school Chinese: Implications for learning to read.Child Development,74, 27–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Spieler, D. H., &Balota, D. A. (2000). Factors influencing word naming in younger and older adults.Psychology & Aging,15, 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strain, E., Patterson, K., &Seidenberg, M. S. (1995). Semantic effects in single-word naming.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 1140–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Strain, E., Patterson, K., &Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). Theories of word naming interact with spelling-sound consistency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,28, 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sun, H. L., Huang, J. P., Sun, D. J., Li, D. J., &Xing, H. B. (1997). Introduction to language corpus system of modern Chinese study. In M. Y. Hu (Ed.),Paper collection for the Fifth World Chinese Teaching Symposium. Beijing: Peking University Publisher.Google Scholar
  36. Sun, M. (2006).Balanced corpus of modern Chinese. Tsinghua University AI and NLP Group (nlp.csai.tsinghua.edu.cn).Google Scholar
  37. Van Orden, G. C., Pennington, B. F., &Stone, G. O. (1990). Word identification in reading and the promise of subsymbolic psycholinguistics.Psychological Review,97, 488–522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang, H. (1986).Modern Chinese frequency dictionary. Beijing: Beijing Language Institute Press.Google Scholar
  39. Xing, H., Shu, H., &Li, P. (2004). The acquisition of Chinese characters: Corpus analyses and connectionist simulations.Journal of Cognitive Science,5, 1–49.Google Scholar
  40. Young, G., &Perkins, W. B. (2005). Presidential rhetoric, the public agenda, and the end of presidential television’s “Golden Age.”Journal of Politics,67, 1190–1205.Google Scholar
  41. Zhang, Q., &Zhang, B. Y. (1997). Concreteness effect in Chinese double-character processing [in Chinese].Psychological Science,29, 216–224.Google Scholar
  42. Zhang, Y., Wu, N., &Yip, M. (2006). Lexical ambiguity resolution in Chinese sentence processing. In P. Li, L. H. Tan, E. Bates, & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.),The handbook of East Asian psycholinguistics: Vol. 1. Chinese (pp. 268–280) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Zhou, X., Shu, H., Bi, Y. C., &Shi, D. F. (1999). Is there phonological mediated access to lexical semantics in reading Chinese? In J. Wang, A. W. Inhoff, & H. C. Chen (Eds.),Reading Chinese script (pp. 135–172). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Ziegler, J. C., Tan, L. H., Perry, C., &Montant, M. (2000). Phonology matters: The phonological frequency effect in written Chinese.Psychological Science,11, 234–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Zipf, G. (1932).Selective studies and the principle of relative frequency in language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and LearningBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of RichmondRichmond

Personalised recommendations